AP_Bio_-_Eukaryotic_Genetics

AP_Bio_-_Eukaryotic_Genetics - Eukaryotic Genetics Ch 19...

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Eukaryotic Genetics Ch 19
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Histones have + charged side chain AA’s that are attracted to the – Phosphates. Histones can regulate transcription by blocking RNA polymerase attachment. Acetylation - Adding a COCH3 to the + side chains can neutralize them, relaxing the binding to the DNA.
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Heterochromatin: the condensed segments of DNA that may be found during interphase. It is not transcribed, and is a mechanism for gene regulation. The rest of the chromatin is “euchromatin” DNA Methylation – helps control gene expression at transcriptional level Methylating DNA helps “turn genes off” Important in cell differentiation (methylation patterns passed on from cell to cell)
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Repetitive DNA : Tandemly Repetitive DNA - Short segments of the same sequence repeated right next to each-other. “Satellite DNA” used because of the early results of centrifugation. It banded separately from the rest of the DNA due to it’s density. Tandem & Interspersed
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Microsatellite DNA- short, 10-100 repeats is a valuable tool for DNA fingerprinting. Telomeres & Centromeres are both “regular satellite” tandemly repetitive DNA with over 100K repeats.
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Artificial Chromosomes Requires only 3 parts an Origin of Replication, one centromere 2 telomeres. Can be replicated by any cell that it is inserted into, and passed onto the daughter cells during mitosis.
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Interspersed Repetitive DNA Can be identical or very similar. They are separated by other segments of DNA. Multigene Family: A group of identical or very similar DNA sequences often linked to the evolution of a genome.
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Embryonic, Fetal, and Adult versions are activated at different times. Why make different versions? • The embryo and fetus have to steal O 2 from the mother’s blood. Advantageous to have a higher affinity for O 2 while inside the womb. Reactivating for athletes: new “blood doping”?
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AP_Bio_-_Eukaryotic_Genetics - Eukaryotic Genetics Ch 19...

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