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7-8_Reproduction

7-8_Reproduction - REPRODUCTION By Deb Das Rakesh Dussa and...

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REPRODUCTION By Deb Das, Rakesh Dussa, and Sundeep Katepalli
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Quick Health Class Review General Functions of the Female Reproductive System: The primary reproductive organs are the ovaries ; their functions include production of sex hormones and oocytes and secretions by glands in the reproductive system. The accessory ducts include the uterine tubes , where fertilization occurs; the uterus, where the embryo develops; and the vagina, which acts as a birth canal and receives the penis during sexual reproduction. In amniotes, fertilization is usually internal, with sperm transfer occasionally aided by a male intromittent organ. In placental mammals, the reproductive structures have become specialized to facilitate giving live birth.
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Female Reproductive Structures In Mammals That Allow Viviparity ~ Ovary : Paired, almond-shaped organs that are supported by the mesovarium, a portion of the broad ligament. Site of oogenesis and hormone production. ~ Oviducts : AKA uterine tubes, receive the oocyte and provide a site for fertilization. ~ I nfundabulum ~ This is the lateral region of the oviduct that resembles an open funnel. The structure is surrounded by ciliated, finger-like projections called fimbrae that drape over the ovary. Movements of the fimbrae sweep the oocyte into the tube. ~ Ostium Tubae ~ The infundabulum opens medially by way of the ostium tubae.
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~ Uterus : The oviducts merge into the larger uterine horn. The two uterine horns fuse to form the uterine body. The entire structure is Y-shaped. The mammalian uterus has evolved a highly vascularized lining whose function is to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized egg throughout pregnancy. During the pregnancy, the uterine horns fill the abdominal cavity. The other organs are pushed in all directions to make room for the developing fetus. ~ Vagina : The vagina is a thin-walled tube that lies posterior to the uterus. It provides a passageway for the delivery of an offspring.
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Reptile Reproduction Most Reptiles lay shelled amniotic eggs on land. Fertilization in reptiles has to occur internally before the shell is produced as the egg passes through the reproductive tract of the female. Some species of lizards and snakes are viviparous (their embryonic membrane forms a placenta that enables the embryo to obtain nutrients from its mother).
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Avian Reproduction Lay shelled amniotic eggs on land (similar to reptiles). Females have only have one ovary Fertilization is internal since eggs are shelled when laid (similar to reptiles). The act of sexual procreation involves contact between the mates’ vents (the opening to their cloacas). After the eggs are laid the avian embryo must be kept warm through brooding by the mother, father or both.
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Mammal Reproduction Fertilization is internal and the embryo develops inside the uterus of the female’s reproductive tract.
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