7-8_Urinary_System_Final

7-8_Urinary_System_Final - UrinarySystem NainaKaushal...

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Urinary System Naina Kaushal,  Hannah Hong,  Phoebe Kuo AP Biology Norcross 7
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You have a blood cell that has a higher salt concentration than its solution. Is the solution hypertonic/  hypotonic? Does the solution have a  higher/lower osmolarity? Predict the direction of the net flow  of water. Do Now Hypotonic Higher Into cell
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Nitrogenous waste removal:  Excretion of  metabolic wastes (water, carbon dioxide)  and nitrogenous wastes (ammonia, urea  and uric acid) Osmoregulation:   Regulation of water and  ion concentrations to maintain  homeostasis of the body’s water content;  prevents the body’s fluid from being too  dilute or too concentrated Major Functions
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Metabolic wastes: water, carbon  dioxide Excreted from respiratory surfaces -  carbon dioxide Excreted from excretory organs -  water and nitrogenous wastes Nitrogenous wastes:  ammonia urea uric acid Nitrogenous Waste Removal
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First metabolic product of deamination of  amino acids Form in which aquatic invertebrates and  freshwater vertebrates excrete nitrogen Highly toxic substance Must not be allowed to accumulate in the  body or environment Must be converted to less toxic form in  many organisms   uric acid, urea Ammonia
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Produced from ammonia,  metabolism of nucleotides Not very soluble, can be excreted as  a paste with little water loss Important water conservation  adaptation in many terrestrial  animals (insects, birds, and some  reptiles) Uric Acid
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Converted from ammonia by urea cycle Principle nitrogenous waste product of  amphibians and mammals Produced mainly in the liver; requires  input of energy by the cells Highly soluble, requires more water to  excrete than uric acid, but can still be  excreted in concentrated form Urea
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1. To be  osmoconformer    Isosmotic  to the surroundings 2. To be an  osmoregulator    Not  isosmotic with the outside  environment, and thus must control  internal osmolarity Osmoregulation
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Available only to marine animals  Cannot compensate for changes in  external osmolarity, but often live in  water that has a very stable  composition and, hence, have a  constant internal osmolarity Osmoconformers
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Must discharge excess water if it lives in  a hypoosmotic environment or take in  water in a hyperosmotic environment Enables animals to live in environments  that are uninhabitable to  osmoconformers, such as freshwater  and terrestrial habitats Enables many marine animals to  maintain internal osmolarities different  from that of seawater Osmoregulators
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Energy cost 
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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7-8_Urinary_System_Final - UrinarySystem NainaKaushal...

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