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DNA - The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Chapter 16 Figure...

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The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Chapter 16
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Figure 6.10 The nucleus and its envelope Nuclei and actin
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Origin of Nucleus and Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Figure 16.2 Transformation of bacteria 1928: Fred Griffith- Streptococcus pneumoniae S- smooth (pathogenic) with capsule R-rough (non-pathogenic) without capsule
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Oswald Avery and Colin MacLeod (1944) Built upon Griffith’s experiment Separated components of bacteria activity moved with DNA Only DNA transformed non-pathogenic cells lipids and proteins did not DNase destroyed transformation activity proteases and RNAses did not Therefore?
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Figure 16.3 The Hershey-Chase experiment: phages Use of radioactive isotopes 32 P Phosphorous present in nucleic acids but not much in proteins (normal= 30 P) 35 S Sulphur (sulfur?) present in proteins but not in nucleic acids (normal= 32 S) Can use these isotopes as tracers to follow DNA and proteins Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, 1952
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Figure 16.4 Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase 1952
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Phosphodiester bond Components of DNA Hydrogen bonds
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Chargaff’s rule “the amount of adenine present always equals the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine always equals the amount of cytosine.” Erwin Chargaff [A] = [T] [C] = [G]
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Figure 16.7 The double helix Major groove and minor groove
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Purine and pyrimidine
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Anti parallel strands
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Figure 16.9 A model for DNA replication: the basic concept (Layer 4)
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Figure 16.10 Three alternative models of DNA replication
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Figure 16.11
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