From_DNA_to_Protein

From_DNA_to_Protein - From DNA to Protein Honors Biology...

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From DNA to Protein Honors Biology
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First Idea Garrod postulated that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect a person’s inability to make a particular enzyme. Alkaptonuria, in which the urine is black because it contains the chemical alkapton, which darkens upon exposure to air. Reasoned that most people have an enzyme that breaks down alkapton.
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First Idea In 1909, British physician Archibald Garrod was the first to suggest that genes dictate phenotypes (or the physical traits) Through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell.
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A further Connection between genes and enzymes Beadle and Edward Tatum began working with a bread mold, Neurospora crassa. They bombarded Neurospora with X-rays and then looked among the survivors for mutants that differed in their nutritional needs from the wild-type (the genetically original type) mold.
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Beadle and Edward Tatum experiment results
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Beadle and Edward Tatum conclusions
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One gene-one enzyme hypothesis Because each mutant was defective in a single gene, Beadle and Tatum’s results provided strong support for the one gene one enzyme hypothesis One gene-one enzyme hypothesis: The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.
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