Mutations_and_Cancer

Mutations_and_Cancer - Mutations Point Mutations Chemical...

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Mutations
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Point Mutations Chemical changes in one base pair of a gene If the result has a negative effect on the phenotype of an organism, it’s called a genetic disorder or hereditary disease Can affect protein structure and function John A. Arigoni 2008
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Base-Pair Substitutions Replacement of one nucleotide & its complement with another pair of nucleotides Can be “silent” (3’-CCG-5’ to 3’-CCA-5’) Don’t always cause problems Similar amino acids More interesting when they do cause changes John A. Arigoni 2008
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Base-Pair Substitutions (con’t) Cause problems when altering amino acids in crucial parts of a protein (e.g. enzyme active site) Missense mutations - altered codon still codes for an amino acid, just not the right one Nonsense mutation - altered codon is a stop codon John A. Arigoni 2008
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Insertions and Deletions Additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene May alter the reading frame, leading to a frameshift mutation Unless it occurs near the end of a gene, can cause serious problems John A. Arigoni 2008
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Mutations_and_Cancer - Mutations Point Mutations Chemical...

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