The_Immune_System

The_Immune_System - The Immune System Levels of Defense...

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The Immune System
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Levels of Defense Defensins- short (15-20) positively charged polypeptides that contain a small hydrophobic or amphipathic domain
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Innate - External Skin Mucus – viscous fluid that traps microbes and other particles Secretions – antimicrobial proteins Lysozyme – found in saliva, tears, mucous secretions
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Innate - Internal - Phagocytosis – the ingestion of invading microorganisms by certain types of WBC – called phagocytes Engulf microbes and break them down with the help of lysosome containing enzymes Some microorganisms avoid phagocytic destruction Outer capsule hides surface polysaccharides Resistant to lysosome destruction (TB)
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White Blood Cells White Blood Cells Neutrophils (dead = pus) Most common type of WBC Self-destruct during phagosytosis Eosinophils Focus on parasites Basophils Carry histamines Granulocytes 50%-60% B-Cells matures into plasma cells creates antigens Helper Cytotoxic Supressor T-Cells physically interact with pathogens Lymphocytes 30% - 40% Macrophages Ingest foreign objects Clean up pus Monocytes ~7% Leukocytes
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Complement System Originally thought to compliment the action of antibodies but some do not complement antibodies
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Inflammation Tissue injury, release of chemical signals Histamines: Dilation Chemokines: attract Phagocytes (chemotaxis) Fever: can activate phagocytes and inhibit pathogens
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Internal defenses Cycle through blood and lymph and hang out in spleen, lymph nodes, and other tissues Intruders inevitably come into contact with lymphocytes B-lymphocytes- complete maturity in the bone marrow T-lymphocytes- complete maturity in the thymus
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Activating Lymphocytes Cytokine- Any of a group of proteins secreted by a number of cell types, including macrophages and helper T cells, that regulate the function of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system.
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The_Immune_System - The Immune System Levels of Defense...

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