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Sociology of Medicine and Health CLASS 10-2

Sociology of Medicine and Health CLASS 10-2 - I Medical...

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I. Medical model of disease A. Looks only to biological aspects of disease a. Tremendous advances in last 100 years b. Used by most health prof (physicians, nurses, etc) c. But ignore social aspects of disease i. Ex. Offset problem 1. 40% of patients don’t get biological diagnosis 2. Go to medical doctor when they don’t need it 3. Psychological, social problem II. Myth that mole medical care is always better A. Ex. Latrogenic disease a. 15% of patients get a new infection while in hospital b. Breeding ground for type of bacteria c. Hormone replacement therapy was for menopause, reduced heart disease (reverse were true actually increased) III. Myth that medical care can cure any disease A. Self limiting disease a. Diseases that go away by themselves b. Diseases that modern medicine can’t cure i. Ex. Flu, common cold 1. Largest epidemic: 1920 Spanish flu IV. Huge increase in average lifespan in the US A. Lifespan increased from 40 to 77 in 20th century a. Not due to advances in medical science b. Mostly due to advances in nutrition and public health (clean air, water, food) c. Higher infant mortality rate B. Contaminated food and such effected young babies reduction in infant mortality V. Great success in reducing acute infectious diseases A. Effective vaccines available B. New infectious diseases appearing as fast as they disappear VI. Little progress in reducing diseases of civilization A. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, relatively high in the US B. Caused mostly by unhealthy lifestyles C. Caused by environmental pollution D. Caused a little by genetics VII. Study of morbidity (illness) A. Epidemiology a. Distribution of health and illness in a population b. Illness is not evenly distributed in the population B. Etiology a. What causes illness? C. Gender example: women report more illness than men a. Theories i. Women more likely to notice minor problems ii. Women more willing to report health problems iii. If you control your reproductive problems, there would be no sex difference
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iv. Women really are sicker VIII. Study of mortality (death) A. Death is not evenly distributed in the population B. Ex. Women live longer than men C. Theories: a. Genetic b. Women lead less stressful lives (working women) c. Women seek medical treatment for minor problems before they become life threatening IX. Study of patient help seeking A. How people: a. Perceive a health problem b. Define a problem c. Decide to seek help d. Decide what kind of help to get B. Distance to medical facility X. Study of utilization of treatment services A. Medical treatment does not always go to those who need it most a. Ex. Small area variations in surgery in Vermont B. Fads in medical treatment a. Ex. Tonsillectomies C. Availability of physicians cause people to get more care even if they didn’t need it XI. Doctorpatient relationships A. Good communication btw doctors and patients is crucial to effective diagnosis and treatment B. But good communication takes time and money XII. Traditional medical treatment vs. alt healers A. Alternate healers are increasingly popular B. Short list:
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