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GEO 102 Fall 2011 Notes for Part 1

GEO 102 Fall 2011 Notes for Part 1 - GEO 102 Fall 2011...

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GEO 102 Fall 2011 Notes for Part 1: People and Places Exam 1 is Friday September 30, 2011 The following notes summarize material from chapters 1, 2, 3, 12 and 13 in the Contemporary Human Geography text by James Rubenstein. Chapter 1: Thinking Geographically In his book The Rural Landscape , John Fraser Hart describes three principal components of any landscape: a) the land surface features; b) vegetation; and c) human structures, and he argues that: "The student of landscape ... who tries to look at everything may wind up seeing nothing at all. We must be selective. At any given time we must concentrate on a few carefully chosen features, or types of feature, but we must never allow ourselves to forget that the features on which we concentrate are related in various ways, some close and some not so close, to all the other features of the landscape." This introduction to human geography emphasizes an exploration of space, place, region, and scale using geography's primary tool, the map. You will also gain some history of the science of geography as well as an introduction to the modern techniques of our profession (GIS, GPS, and remote sensing, among others.) There are three key ideas in this chapter: 1. Development of Geography : Geography - from the Greek for "earth writing" - has its roots in our natural curiosity to know where things are located and the reasons why. Geography's early history is bound up with the activities of explorers and conquerors. Since the nineteenth century, it has evolved into the science of location that commonly bridges the physical and social sciences in order to understand the environment. The geographer's main tool for research is the map. 2. The Uniqueness of Every Place : Each location on the Earth's surface is unique in some manner. Geographers use the concepts of "place" and "region" to study the unique characteristics of locations. These unique characteristics can be discussed in terms of a place's site, situation, and name or a region's combination of features. Amid globalizing forces, many places strive to heighten their unique identity. 3. Similarities among Places : Places on Earth also exhibit similarities to one another. Geographers study the similarities among places with the concepts of scale and space. They are also interested in the connections between places that give rise to their similarities in a globalizing world. Geographers use the concepts of density, concentration, and pattern to study the distribution of features around the world. Diffusion is the process of features spreading from place to place as a result of communication and transportation technologies. Key Terms: 1. concentration : the extent of a feature’s spread; the spread of something across a given area. 2. contagious diffusion : the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. 3. cultural landscape : fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. 4. density : the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area 1 5. diffusion
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