Articular_System

Articular_System - ArticularSystem ArticularSystem:Joints

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Articular System
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Articular System: Joints Joints hold bones together  but permit movement Point of contact  between 2 bones between cartilage and  bone between teeth and bones Arthrology = study of joints Kinesiology = study of  motion
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Classification of Joints Based on the presence/absence of a  synovial  (joint)  cavity  and type of connecting tissue.  Structural classification of joints are:  Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Functional classification based upon movement:  Immovable  =  synarthrosis Slightly movable  =  amphiarthrosis Freely movable  =  diarthrosis
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Fibrous Joints Lack a synovial cavity Bones held closely together  by fibrous connective tissue Little or no movement  (synarthroses or  amphiarthroses) 3 structural types Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses
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Fibrous Joints: Sutures Thin layer of dense fibrous  connective tissue unites  bones of the skull Immovable (synarthrosis) If fuse completely in adults  becomes a synostosis (i.e.  frontal bone)
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Fibrous Joints: Syndesmosis Bones united by ligament  Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis) Example: Anterior tibiofibular ligament and Interosseous  membrane
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Fibrous Joints: Gomphosis  Ligament holds cone-shaped peg in bony socket  Immovable (synarthrosis) Example: Teeth in alveolar processes
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Cartilaginous Joints Lacks a synovial cavity Allows little or no movement Bones tightly connected by hyaline cartilage or  fibrocartilage 2 types Synchondroses Symphyses
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Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondrosis   Connecting material is hyaline cartilage Immovable (synarthrosis) Example: Epiphyseal plate (growing bones) or joints  between ribs and sternum
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Cartilaginous  Joints: Symphysis  Fibrocartilage is connecting  material Slightly movable  (amphiarthroses) Example:Intervertebral  discs and pubic symphysis
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Synovial Joints General Structure: 1. Joint cavity Separates articulating  bones 1. Articular cartilage Reduces friction Absorbs shock 1. Articular capsule Synovial membrane Secretes synovial fluid  containing slippery  hyaluronic acid Brings nutrients to  articular cartilage Fibrous capsule Provides stability
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Synovial Joints 4. Synovial fluid Separates articulating  bones Joint lubrication Shock absorption Supply oxygen and  nutrient to articular  cartilage 4. Accessory ligaments  and discs Extracapsular ligament Thickenings of fibrous  capsule Intracapsular ligament Inside the articular  capsule
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Synovial Joints 5. Articular Discs  (menisci) Subdivide the synovial  cavity to allow  separate movements  Allow 2 bones of  different shape to fit  tightly Increase joint stability
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course EXSS 175 taught by Professor Zinder during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Articular_System - ArticularSystem ArticularSystem:Joints

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