Chapter three notes - Chapter three notes Perception- the...

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Chapter three notes Perception - the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information received by our senses; each activating influences the other: our mental organization of information shapes how we interpret it, and our interpretation of information influences how we mentally organize it Selecting Information 1) Selection - involves focusing attention on certain sights, sounds, tastes, touches, or smells in our environment 2) Salience - the degree to which particular people or aspect of their communication attract our attention a. When something is salient, it seems especially noticeable and significant to us b. Become salient if the communicator behaves in a visually and audibly stimulating fashion c. Communication becomes salient if our goals or expectations lead us to view it as important Organizing the Information you’ve selected 1) Organization - the step of perception in which we mentally structure selected sensory data into a coherent pattern a. When hearing a story, you pick what events you want to focus on and form your own representation of the story inside your head 2) Punctuation - structuring the information you’ve selected into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the order of events a. you determine which words and actions occurred first, second, and so on and which comments or behaviors cause subsequent actions to occur 3) If you and another person organize and punctuate information from an encounter differently, the two of you may well feel frustrated with one another. a. “You started it” argument Interpretation - assigning meaning to information we’ve selected. We call to mind familiar information that’s relevant to the current encounter, and we use that information to make sense of what we’re hearing and seeing Using Familiar Information 1) Schemata - mental structures that contain information defining the characteristics of various concepts, as well as how those characteristics are related to each other a. Each of us develops schemata for individual people, groups of people, places, events, objects, and relationships b. Ex- schemata for “marriage proposal” includes flowers, ring, one knee c. New employee schema- may interpret worker as naïve speculation rather than something expert from an employee that has been there for many years Creating Explanations
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Chapter three notes 1) Attributions - rationales we create to explain the comments or behaviors of others. a. Ex- Ryan reasons that Jason’s quietness in class means that Jason is shy b. Answers to the “why” questions; why did my best friend yell at me? 2) Internal attributions- presume that a person’s communication or behavior stems from internal causes, such as character or personality a. “Janet sent this message because she rude” 3) External attributions- a person’s communication is caused by factors unrelated to personal qualities a. “Janet sent this message because I did not respond to the first message”
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Chapter three notes - Chapter three notes Perception- the...

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