08-G2-NuclearChem

08-G2-NuclearChem - Section 8 Nuclear Chemistry Energy and...

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1 Nuclear Chemistry Section 8 E = mc 2 Energy and matter are interconvertable… Since C 2 is so large, small changes in mass yield very large changes in energy
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2 The Birth of Stars
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3 2 1 H + 2 1 H 4 2 He + ENERGY 10 7 ° C Our Star Fusion
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4 Masses of individual nucleons Calculated Nuclear mass amu amu amu amu amu Fusion
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5 Masses of individual nucleons Calculated Nuclear mass amu amu amu amu amu Fusion
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6 Masses of individual nucleons Mass Defect Observed Nuclear mass Calculated Nuclear mass amu amu amu amu amu amu amu Fusion
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7 Nuclear Stability E = mc 2 E = (0.0305 g)(3.00 x 10 8 m/s) 2 E = 2.74 x 10 15 g-m 2 x 1 kg E = 2.74 x 10 12 kg-m 2 E = 2.74 x 10 12 J Mass lost by individual nucleons during fusion is converted to energy and released (nuclear binding energy) s 2 s 2 1000g Compare… 53 tons of methane combustion Therefore the nucleus is much more stable than individual nucleons Strong nuclear force overcomes electrostatic repulsions of protons
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8 Average mass loss and binding energy per nucleon varies for different nuclei (different combinations of p + and n 0 )
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9
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10 proton Belt of Stability neutron ratio proton As the number of protons increases, there becomes a greater need for neutrons to counter proton-proton repulsions, neutron with atomic number
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11
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12 Types of Radioactive Decay α Alpha Particles, Helium-4 or 2 He 4 92 U 90 Th + 2 He 238 234 4 88 Ra 226 86 Rn 222 + 2 He 4 90 Th 232 88 Ra + 2 He 228 4
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08-G2-NuclearChem - Section 8 Nuclear Chemistry Energy and...

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