Gases - Section 11 The Gas Phase Kinetic Molecular Theory...

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Section 11 The Gas Phase Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory, KMT 1. Gas Molecules are in constant, random, straight-line motion 2. Molecular collisions with surface cause gas pressure 3. Gas volume is determined by the container
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4. The volume of space between gas molecules is large, therefore molecular volumes are considered negligible.* * Note deviation from ideality at high pressure… Molecular volumes become important Intermolecular volume is variable, and gases are greatly compressible.
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5. The average speed/kinetic energy of gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, K. At the same temperature, the molecules of every gas have the same average kinetic energy.
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6. Molecular collisions are perfectly elastic, i.e ., the total energy of colliding molecules remains constant. The total kinetic energy of particles before collision is equal to the total kinetic energy of the particles after collision
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7. Intermolecular forces between gas molecules are negligible.* * Deviation from ideality at low temperature and high pressure
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Pressure Force exerted by a gas per unit area of container surface Increases as molecular collision frequency increases (greater T and concentration) Increases as average collision energies increase (function of T) Units of measurement; 1 atm ≡ 760 mmHg or 760 torr STP Standard Temperature and Pressure 1 atm (760 mm) and 0°C (273K)
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The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law , at constant T and quantity… V α 1 P V 1 P 2 V 2 P 1 =
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Charles’ Law , at constant P and quantity V T V 1 T 1 V 2 T 2 =
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Avogadro’s Law , at constant T and P V n V 1 n 1 V 2 n 2 = Number of Moles Amonton’s Law, at constant V and quantity P T P 1 T 1 P 2 T 2 =
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Gases - Section 11 The Gas Phase Kinetic Molecular Theory...

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