Hw7K-G1-GenBond-PDF

Hw7K-G1-GenBond-PDF - HW Set 7 - KEY GENERAL CONCEPTS of...

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HW Set 7 - KEY GENERAL CONCEPTS of CHEMICAL BONDING CHM 2045 Hw7K-G1-GenBond-PDF.wpd Common Monoatomic Ions 1. a) Al 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 - 3e - ! 3+ 2 2 6 noble gas, Ne b) Ga [Ar]4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 - - ! 3+ [Ar} 10 pseudo-noble gas c) Sc 2 1 - - ! 3+ [Ar] noble gas, Ar d) N 2 2 3 + - ! N 3- 2 2 6 e) Pb [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 2 - 2e - ! 2+ [Xe] 6s 2 14 10 n s 2 (n-1) d 10 f) K 1 - 1e - ! K + g) Ba [Xe]6s 2 - - ! 2+ [Xe] noble gas, Xe h) Cu 1 10 - - ! + 10 i) Cd [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 - - ! 2+ [Kr] 10 j) Tl 2 14 10 1 - - ! + 2 14 10 n s 2 d 10 k) Bi 2 14 10 3 - - ! 3+ 2 14 10 n s 2 d 10 l) S [Ne] 3s 2 4 + - ! S 2- [Ne] 2 6 m) Br [Ar] 4s 2 10 5 + - ! - [Ar] 4s 2 10 6 noble gas, Kr n) H 1 + - ! H - 2 noble gas, He o) O 2 2 4 + - ! O 2- 2 2 6 p) Be 2 2 - - ! 2+ 2 2. Mg [Ne]3s 2 - - ! Mg 2+ [Ne] Se 2 10 4 + - ! 2- 2 10 6 or 2 14 10 1 - - ! + 2 14 10 2 14 10 1 - - ! 3+ [Xe]4f 14 10 Ag 1 10 - - ! + [Kr]4d 10 Cl [Ne]3s 2 5 + - ! - 2 6 P 2 3 + - ! P 3- 2 6 Li [He]2s 1 - - ! + [He] Na 1 - - ! + i) Sn 2 10 5p 2 - - ! 2+ 2 10 2 10 2 - 4e - ! 4+ 10 F 2 5 + - ! F - Ca 2 - - ! 2+ l) In 2 10 1 - - ! + 2 10 2 10 1 - - ! 3+ 10 O 2 4 + - ! O 2- Zn 2 10 - - ! 2+ [Ar]3d 10 Hg 2 14 10 - - ! 2+ 14 10 Cs 1 - - ! +
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2 3. a) As 3- b) Br - c) Ca 2+ d) Cs + e) I - f) Se 2- g) K + h) Cu + , Cu 2+ i) Sn 2+ , Sn 4+ j) Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ k) Al 3+ l) O 2- m) Co 2+ , Co 3+ n) Sr 2+ o) Zn 2+ p) Hg 2+ , (also poly atomic Hg 2 2+ ) q) S 2- r) Cr 2+ , Cr 3+ s) Mg 2+ t) Tl + , Tl 3+ u) Ba 2+ v) F - w) Pb 2+ , Pb 4+ x) Ni 2+ Ionic Bonding 4. M and X in the combinations below represent elements in the third period of the Periodic Table. [M 2+ ][X 2- ] = MgS + ] 3 [X 3- ] = Na 3 P 3+ - ] 3 = AlCl 3 2+ ] 3 3- ] 2 = 3 P 2 5. K 2 S ( K + , S 2- ) AlN ( Al 3+ , N 3- ) AlF 3 ( Al 3+ , F - ) d) CsI ( Cs + , I - ) MgSe ( Mg 2+ , Se 2- ) 2 O ( Na + , O 2- ) CaS ( Ca 2+ 2- ) 3 N 2 ( Mg 2+ 3- ) i) 2 S 3 ( Fe 3+ 2- ) KI + , I - ) Li 3 P ( Li + P 3- ) l) 2 ( Cu + O 2- ) 6. NaF BeO 2 S 3 ZnCl 2 K 2 3 N 3 P 2 SnF 2 and 4 i) CaH 2 ZnBr 2 2 2 O 3 l) KI FeO 2 O 3 2 Cl 2 and HgCl 2 NiBr 2 BaS GaF 3 2 CuO 7. 2 K + I 2 ! 2 KI 12 Cs P 4 ! 4 Cs 3 P 8 Mg S 8 ! 8 MgS 4 Al 3 O 2 ! 2 Al 2 O 3 Zn + 2 ! 2 6 Li N 2 ! 2 Li 3 N Ni 2 ! NiCl 2 2 Ca O 2 ! 2 CaO i) 2 Ga 3 F 2 ! 2 GaF 3 8. The following predictions are based upon the interpretation of the changes in electrostatic force between two ions (one cation, M, and one anion, A). The change in energy between each combination would probably not quite match quantitative changes in ionic crystal lattice energy since structural three dimensional factors would vary. The coulombic changes predicted, however, should generally reflect changes in crystal lattice stabilization, i.e ., the greater the force of attraction between the cation and the anion, the more stable (lower energy) the solid ionic crystal. Recall Coulomb's Law: Force = q 1 x q 2 , @ r 2 The charge on M is tripled while the charge on A remains the same (no change in distance). The force triples. The charge on A is quadrupled while the charge on M remains the same (no change in distance). The force quadruples. The charge on M is tripled and the charge on A is quadrupled simultaneously (no change in distance). increases by a factor of twelve. The distance between M and A is tripled while the charges are unchanged. The force decreases to one ninth(1/9). The distance between M and A is decreased by a factor of four with no change in charge.
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Hw7K-G1-GenBond-PDF - HW Set 7 - KEY GENERAL CONCEPTS of...

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