Hw12K-G1-Liq-Sol

# Hw12K-G1-Liq-Sol - 5. a) 4.23 kJ x 103 J x 1 g = 17.1 g...

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2 5. a) 4.23 kJ x 10 3 J x 1 g = 17.1 g CHCl 3 kJ 247 J b) 247 J x 1 kJ x 119 g = 29.4 kJ g 10 3 J mol mol c) 16.2 g x247 J x 1 kJ = 4.00 kJ heat evolved g 10 3 J 6. Both the steam and the liquid water are at 100 / C, however the steam also releases heat as it condenses to liquid (- ) H vap ). 7. a) The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external pressure. If the external pressure increases the BP must also increase (increasing the temperature increases the fraction of high energy molecules able to escape). b) The normal BP (meaning at 1 atm) of water is 100 / C. At the top of Mt. Everest the atmospheric pressure would be expected to be significantly lower than 1 atm. The BP of water would therefore be lower than 100 / C. Solid State 8. a) The ice cube would be more effective at cooling. As the ice melts, heat is consumed as the water molecules in the crystal lattice are liberated from their rigid positions within the crystal lattice and allowed to move about within the liquid phase ( ) H fus ). b) This is a good question. .. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and the average kinetic energy of a system increases with increasing temperature. When melting or boiling occurs the temperature remains constant while heat is being added to the system. The added heat is being invested into the separation of the particles, increasing the potential energy of the system by opposing interparticle attractive forces. Only when phase conversion is complete (only one phase present) does the further addition of heat increase the average kinetic energy of the particles and raise the temperature of the system. 9. In a crystalline solid, the component particles are arranged efficiently in an ordered repeating pattern (the crystal lattice). In an amorphous solid, there is no orderly structure. Phase Diagrams 10. The liquid-gas line of a phase diagram ends at the critical point, the temperature and pressure beyond which the gas and liquid phases are indistinguishable. 11. The triple point is the temperature and pressure at which the gas, liquid, and solid phases are all in equilibrium. 12. a) At point 1, H 2 O exists totally as a vapor. At point 2, a solid-vapor equilibrium exists. Above that pressure, at point 3, all the H 2 O is converted to a solid. At point 4, some of the solid melts, and an equilibrium between solid and liquid is achieved. At still higher pressures, all the H 2 O melts, so that only the liquid phase is present at point 5. b)
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## Hw12K-G1-Liq-Sol - 5. a) 4.23 kJ x 103 J x 1 g = 17.1 g...

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