Ox-Numbers - unit equals 0 C Monatomic ions Ionic charge...

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O XIDATION N UMBERS ox-nmbrs.wpd Oxidation number (or oxidation state ) is defined to be the charge an atom in a substance would have if the pairs of electrons in each bond belonged to the more electronegative atom. Uses for oxidation numbers: C Derivation of chemical formulas C Nomenclature C Electron "bookkeeping" during oxidation/reduction reactions Guidelines for Oxidation Numbers 1. The oxidation number of an atom of a free (uncombined) element is 0. 2. Given two elements that are combined chemically: C The more electronegative element has a negative (-) oxidation state. C The more electropositive element has a positive (+) oxidation state. 3. Ranges of oxidation numbers for Main Group (Group A) elements: C Theoretical maximum: + group number C Theoretical minimum: group number - 8 (mostly nonmetals) 4. Chemical formulas C Neutral compound: The sum of oxidation numbers of all atoms in a molecule or formula
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Unformatted text preview: unit equals 0. C Monatomic ions: Ionic charge and oxidation number are identical. C Polyatomic ions: The oxidation numbers add up to the net charge on the ion. 5. Useful periodic trends C Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 unless combined with metals, in which case it has an oxidation number of -1. C The usual oxidation number of oxygen in compounds is -2. The major exceptions are peroxides in which oxygen carries a -1 oxidation state. C Group IA (alkali metals) are always +1 in compounds. C Group IIA (alkaline earth metals) are always +2 in compounds. C The oxidation number of fluorine is always -1 in all of its compounds while. .. C The other halogens (Group VIIA) are -1 when combined with metals and other nonmetals of lower electronegativity. C Many nonmetals and transition metals have intermediate oxidation states....
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