Soln Theory1 - Section 13 Solution Theory same phase...

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Section 13 Solution Theory Solution ≡ Homogeneous mixture of elements and/or compounds* same phase *atoms and/or ions and/or molecules Solute Dissolved substance (minor component) Solvent Dissolving medium (major component) Determines the phase of the solution
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Types of Solutions I. Gaseous solutions Particles widely separated with minimal interaction, KMT description is most convenient
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II. Liquid Solutions the solvent is a polar or nonpolar molecular liquid A. Solid solute (ionic or molecular) NaNO 3 in H 2 O ions with molecules C 12 H 22 O 11 in H 2 O molecules with molecules
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B. Liquid solute molecular CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 in CCl 4 molecules molecules HO-CH 2 CH 2 -OH in H 2 O molecules molecules
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C. Gaseous solute molecular CO 2 in H 2 O molecules molecules
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III. Solid Solutions Solid solvent A. Solid solute Brass - Zn in Cu B. Liquid solute Hg in Ag An alloy An amalgam C. Gaseous solute H 2 in Pd Interstitial absorption
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Chemical Forces Strength collective ion-ion forces covalent bond intermolecular forces polar molecule nonpolar molecule – London only London + perm dipole-dipole London + hydrogen bonding ion-dipole ion-ion dipole-dipole
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Strength collective ion-ion forces covalent bond collective ion-dipole forces intermolecular forces polar molecule nonpolar molecule – London only London + perm dipole-dipole London + hydrogen bonding ion-dipole Chemical Forces
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Chemical Forces
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Chemical Forces
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General Energy Concepts Enthalpy change, ΔH Net difference in total bond making energies verses bond breaking energies of a chemical or physical change Change in heat content as reactants proceed to products Reactants Products + Heat ΔH (-) Exothermic Heat released Net bond improvement Reactants + Heat Products ΔH (+) Endothermic Heat absorbed Diminished bonding
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Entropy Change Change in disorder or randomness
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