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Unformatted text preview: Cl C Cl Cl Cl Name Partner The Chemistry of Solutions General Procedure ` Follow the question/experimental sequence as presented. Each step correlates with previous steps. ` Written response must be completed neatly in ink. ` Clean glassware is dry, i.e. , water free. Remember that water is a chemical and potential containment. ` Label each test tube according to the numbers outlined in the experiment. Label tape is available from the stockroom. ` Agitate chemicals well when mixed together before deciding solubility. Terms and Concepts Describe or define the meaning of a solution. Given that the solvent is the major component of a liquid solution and determines the phase of the mixture, what must be the character of the solvent for liquid solutions at nominal temperatures, ionic or molecular? Comment on the potential color and clarity of a liquid solution. Polarity and Solubility Correlations A purely empirical or observational correlation of the nature of the solute and solvent was recorded in Latin by early chemists: Simila similibus solvunter which translates like dissolves like. Carbon tetrachloride, CCl 4 , is a liquid at room temperature. Each CCl 4 molecule has four Cl atoms covalently bonded to a central carbon atom in a tetrahedral geometry. Is an individual C - Cl bond within the CCl 4 polar or nonpolar? How you can tell? If the C - Cl bond is polar, write a vector arrow over each C - Cl bond within the molecular structure at the left to indicate the polarity of each bond, i.e. , each individual bond dipole . Is the entire CCl 4 molecule polar or nonpolar, i.e. , does a CCl 4 molecule have a net molecular dipole moment , W ? Water, H 2 O , is also a liquid at room temperature, and the molecule has two H atoms covalently 2 H O H Fill a clean wash bottle with deionized water and label it. Next measure 1.0 mL of deionized water in a 10-mL graduated cylinder and then pour it into a small test tube. Make a mental note of this liquid level in the test tube as a convenient estimate of 1 mL for follow-up work. Repeat using 2.0 mL. Place about 1 mL of CCl 4 in clean small test tube #1. Add approximately an equal volume of deionized H 2 O and agitate. Observation: bound to a central oxygen atom in a bent or angular configuration. Is an individual O - H bond polar or nonpolar? Explain. If the O - H bond is polar, write a vector arrow over each O - H bond in the structure at the left to indicate the polarity of each bond. Is the H 2 O molecule polar or nonpolar, i.e., does a H 2 O molecule have a net molecular dipole moment, W ? Experimental Miscible and Immiscible Liquids If two liquids dissolve in one another in all proportions, they are described as miscible. Two liquids that are mutually insoluble are immiscible. Miscibility applies only to the solubility relationship between two liquids . (Two liquids that are immiscible may be partially soluble in one another.) 1. CCl 4 and H 2 O ` Which liquid is on top, and which liquid is on bottom? Which liquid is on top, and which liquid is on bottom?...
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- Fall '07