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Chem27kinetics - Calculations In Chemistry Modules 19 and...

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©2009 ChemReview.net v. 2e ii Calculations In Chemistry Modules 19 and above have been re-numbered. Module 25 on Kinetics is now Module 27 and is in this packet The former Module 27 on Acid-Base Fundamentals is now Module 29 If you are looking for Acid-Base pH topics, check Module 29 At www.ChemReview.Net * * * * * Module 27 – Kinetics: Rate Laws Module 27 – Kinetics: Rate Laws ................................................................................ 748 Lesson 27A: Kinetics Fundamentals ..................................................................................... 748 Lesson 27B: Rate Laws ............................................................................................................ 753 Lesson 27C: Integrated Rate Law --Zero Order ................................................................... 762 Lesson 27D: Base 10 Logarithms ........................................................................................... 770 Lesson 27E: Natural Log Calculations ................................................................................. 779 Lesson 27F: Integrated Rate Law -- First Order .................................................................. 787 Lesson 27G: Reciprocal Math .................................................................................................. 797 Lesson 27H: Integrated Rate Law -- Second Order .............................................................. 802 Lesson 27I: Half-Life ............................................................................................................... 809 For additional modules, visit www.ChemReview.Net
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Module 27 — Kinetics: Rate Laws ©2011 ChemReview.net v. 2z Page 748 Module 27 — Kinetics: Rate Laws Prerequisites : It will be helpful if you have completed Module 20 – Graphing before this module. * * * * * Lesson 27A: Reaction Rates Reaction kinetics includes the study of the speed (the rate) of chemical reactions; the mechanism of chemical reactions: the “intermediate” particles that form in the transition from reactants to products; and reaction energetics: how much energy is needed to form intermediates, and how reaction rates are affected by temperature. Why is kinetics important? We would like to speed up certain reactions that are important to society, such as the burning of gasoline in internal combustion engines, so that incompletely burned combustion products do not escape into the environment; and converting graphite (pencil lead) into “industrial diamonds” for drills and cutting tools. Other reactions, we would like to slow down, such as the conversion of the iron in steel to iron oxide (rust), and the decay of ozone (O 3 ) in earth’s upper atmosphere, which protects life forms from the harmful elements of solar radiation. Kinetics helps in understanding, and potentially controlling, these processes. Definitions A rate is a change in a quantity per unit of time . A rate is a ratio that always has a time unit in the denominator. Speed (or velocity) is a measure of how fast an object is moving: the rate of change of position per unit of time, in units such as miles per hour or meters per second . An interest rate is the percentage of a loan amount you must pay, per month or per annum (per year), in addition to re-paying the principal. The rate of a chemical reaction measures how fast the reactants are used up, and/or how fast the products are formed. A reaction mechanism breaks down an overall chemical reaction into individual steps, identifying the temporary particles that form in the transition from reactants to products. The rate of a reaction is determined by the slowest step in the mechanism: the rate- determining step . Rate-law equations measure the characteristics of the rate-determining step of a reaction.
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