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Chem32-33-34SaltsBuffer

Chem32-33-34SaltsBuffer - Module 32 pH of Salts...

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Module 32 — pH of Salts © 2009 ChemReview.Net v. 7u Page i Calculations In Chemistry * * * * * Module 32: pH of Salts Module 33: Buffers Module 34: pH During Titration Module 32 – pH of Salts ................................................................................................ 979 Lesson 32A: The Acid-Base Behavior of Salts ...................................................................... 979 Lesson 32B: Will A Salt Acid-Base React? .......................................................................... 986 Lesson 32C: Calculating the pH of a Salt Solution ............................................................ 990 Lesson 32D: Salts That Contain Amphoteric Ions ............................................................... 995 Module 33 – Buffers ..................................................................................................... 1000 Lesson 33A: Acid-Base Common Ions, Buffers ................................................................. 1000 Lesson 33B: Buffer Example ................................................................................................ 1003 Lesson 33C: Buffer Components ......................................................................................... 1009 Lesson 33D: Methodical Buffer Calculations ..................................................................... 1013 Lesson 33E: Buffer Quick Steps ........................................................................................... 1017 Lesson 33F: The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation ......................................................... 1024 Module 34 – pH During Titration ............................................................................. 1031 Lesson 34A: pH In Mixtures ................................................................................................. 1031 Lesson 34B: pH After Neutralization ................................................................................. 1036 Lesson 34C: Distinguishing Types of Acid-Base Calculations ........................................ 1046 Lesson 34D: pH During Strong-Strong Titration .............................................................. 1051 Lesson 34E: Titration pH: Weak by Strong ...................................................................... 1063 For additional modules, visit www.ChemReview.Net
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Module 32 — pH of Salts © 2011 ChemReview.Net v. 7w Page 979 Module 32 — pH of Salts Prerequisites : Complete Modules 30 and 31 before starting this module. * * * * * Lesson 32A: The Acid-Base Behavior of Salts Timing : Do this lesson if you are assigned problems that ask you to predict the acidity or basicity of salt solutions. * * * * * Salts Historically in chemistry, salt is a term that has been used to describe the ionic compounds that are a product in acid-base neutralization . In current usage, “salt” can refer to any ionic compound. Salt = Ionic Compound As with all ionic compounds, salts are solids at room temperature. All salts dissolve to some extent in water. All particles that dissolve will be present as ions that can move about freely in the solution. In water, some salts form pH neutral solutions, but others react with water (hydrolyze) to form acidic or basic solutions. Distinguishing the Types of “Neutral” To describe acidic and basic ions, it is necessary to distinguish between the two uses in chemistry for the word neutral . Particles that have a zero overall charge are termed electrically neutral . Positive or negative ions are particles that are not electrically neutral. Whether a particle is electrically neutral or is an ion, in an aqueous solution the particle can also be o pH neutral , also termed acid-base neutral (such particles include H 2 O and Na + and Cl ), or o not pH neutral and can be acidic (such as HF or NH 4 + ), basic (such as NH 3 or F ), or amphoteric (can react as acids or bases, such as HCO 3 ). To avoid confusion, the terms electrically neutral and pH neutral , rather than simply neutral , are preferred in situations where the meaning of “neutral”may not be clear. Soluble Salts Some ionic compounds are quite soluble in water, but others are only slightly soluble. Recall from Lesson 13A that if compounds contain these ions, they are nearly always soluble in water: NH 4 + , the row 3-7 alkali metal ions (Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , Fr + ), NO 3 , and CH 3 COO except when combined with Ag + .
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