Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding - Introductory Chemistry, 2nd Edition...

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1 Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Introductory Chemistry , 2 nd Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding 2006, Prentice Hall Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 2 Bonding Theories bonding is the way atoms attach to make molecules an understanding of how and why atoms attach together in the manner they do is central to chemistry chemists have an understanding of bonding that allows them to: 1) predict the shapes of molecules and properties of substances based on the bonding within the molecules 2) design and build molecules with particular sets of chemical and physical properties Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 3 Lewis Symbols of Atoms • also known as electron dot symbols • use symbol of element to represent nucleus and inner electrons • use dots around the symbol to represent valence electrons put one electron on each side first, then pair • remember that elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons; therefore their Lewis dot symbols will look alike Li• Be• •B• •C• •N• •O : : F : : Ne : •• •• •• •• ••
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2 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 4 Lewis Bonding Theory • atoms bond because it results in a more stable electron configuration • atoms bond together by either transferring or sharing electrons so that all atoms obtain an outer shell with 8 electrons Octet Rule there are some exceptions to this rule – the key to remember is to try to get an electron configuration like a noble gas Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 5 Lewis Symbols of Ions • Cations have Lewis symbols without valence electrons Lost in the cation formation • Anions have Lewis symbols with 8 valence electrons Electrons gained in the formation of the anion Li• Li +1 : F : [: F :] -1 •• •• •• Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 6 Ionic Bonds • metal to nonmetal • metal loses electrons to form cation • nonmetal gains electrons to form anion • ionic bond results from + to - attraction larger charge = stronger attraction smaller ion = stronger attraction • Lewis Theory allow us to predict the correct formulas of ionic compounds
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3 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 7 Example 10.3 - Using Lewis Theory to Predict Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Predict the formula of the compound that forms between calcium and chlorine. Draw the Lewis dot symbols of the elements Ca Cl Transfer all the valance electrons from the metal to the nonmetal, adding more of each atom as you go, until all electrons are lost from the metal atoms and all nonmetal atoms have 8 electrons Ca Cl Cl Ca 2+ - ± ² ³ ³ ´ µ : : Cl - ± ² ³ ³ ´ µ : : Cl CaCl 2 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 10 8 Covalent Bonds • often found between two nonmetals • typical of molecular species • atoms bonded together to form molecules
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course CHM 1025 taught by Professor J during the Summer '09 term at Santa Fe College.

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Chemical Bonding - Introductory Chemistry, 2nd Edition...

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