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Unformatted text preview: 1 Basic Units of Measure Dimensional Analysis Graphing The Standard Units • Scientists have agreed on a set of international standard units for comparing all our measurements called the SI units – Système International = International System K kelvin temperature s second time kg kilogram mass m meter length Symbol Unit Quantity Some Standard Units in the Metric System K Kelvin Temperature s seconds Time L liter Volume m meter Length g gram Mass Abbreviatio n Name of Unit Quantity Measured 2 Length • Measure of the twodimensional distance an object covers • SI unit = meter – About 3½ inches longer than a yard • 1 meter = one tenmillionth the distance from the North Pole to the Equator = distance between marks on standard metal rod in a Paris vault = distance covered by a certain number of wavelengths of a special color of light • Commonly use centimeters (cm) – 1 m = 100 cm – 1 cm = 0.01 m = 10 mm – 1 inch = 2.54 cm (exactly) Mass • Measure of the amount of matter present in an object • SI unit = kilogram (kg) – about 2 lbs. 3 oz. • Commonly measure mass in grams (g) or milligrams (mg) – 1 kg = 2.2046 pounds, 1 lbs. = 453.59 g – 1 kg = 1000 g = 10 3 g, – 1 g = 1000 mg = 10 3 mg – 1 g = 0.001 kg = 103 kg, – 1 mg = 0.001 g = 103 g Related Units in the SI System • All units in the SI system are related to the standard unit by a power of 10 • The power of 10 is indicated by a prefix • The prefixes are always the same, regardless of the standard unit 3 Common Prefixes in the SI System Base x 109 0.000 000 001 n nano Base x 106 0.000 001 μ or mc micro Base x 103 0.001 m milli Base x 102 0.01 c centi Base x 101 0.1 d deci Base x 10 3 1,000 k kilo Base x 10 6 1,000,000 M mega Power of 10 Decimal Equivalent Symbol Prefix Prefixes Used to Modify Standard Unit • kilo = 1000 times base unit = 10 3 – 1 kg = 1000 g = 10 3 g • deci = 0.1 times the base unit = 101 – 1 dL = 0.1 L = 101 L; 1 L = 10 dL • centi = 0.01 times the base unit = 102 – 1 cm = 0.01 m = 102 m; 1 m = 100 cm • milli = 0.001 times the base unit = 103 – 1 mg = 0.001 g = 103 g; 1 g = 1000 mg • micro = 106 times the base unit – 1 μ m = 106 m; 10 6 μ m = 1 m • nano = 109 times the base unit – 1 nL = 109 L; 10 9 nL = 1 L Volume • Measure of the amount of threedimensional space occupied • SI unit = cubic meter (m 3 ) – a Derived Unit • Commonly measure solid volume in cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) – 1 m 3 = 10 6 cm 3 – 1 cm 3 = 106 m 3 = 0.000001 m 3 • Commonly measure liquid or gas volume in milliliters (mL) – 1 L is slightly larger than 1 quart – 1 L = 1 dL 3 = 1000 mL = 10 3 mL – 1 mL = 0.001 L = 103 L – 1 mL = 1 cm 3 4 Common Units and Their Equivalents 2.54 centimeters (cm) exactly = 1 inch (in.) 30.48 centimeters (cm) = 1 foot (ft) 1.094 yards (yd) = 1 meter (m) 39.37 inches (in.) = 1 meter (m) 0.6214 mile (mi) = 1 kilometer (km) Length Common Units and Their Equivalents 1000 cubic centimeters...
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 Summer '09
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 pH, International System of Units, Kilogram, Orders of magnitude, Litre, solution map

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