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Ions7C - Module 7 Writing Names and Formulas Naming Ionic...

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Module 7 – Writing Names and Formulas © 2009 www.ChemReview.Net v.m8 Page 128 Naming Ionic Compounds: Self-Study Assignment You will have a QUIZ on the attached pages on _____________________ . Your assignment is: READ the pages attached. WORK the examples in the lesson. Complete the pages as homework. To work the examples, use a sheet of paper to cover below the * * * * * line, try the problem on your paper, then check your answer below the * * * * * line. Start early. This assignment will require 2-4 hours of work outside of class. Lesson 7B: Naming Ions Prerequisites : Complete Module 6 and Lesson 7A before starting this lesson. Pretest : If you think you know this topic, try several problems at the end of this lesson. If you complete them all correctly, you may skip the lesson. * * * * * Ions In ionic compounds, the constituent particles are ions , particles with an electrical charge. In most first-year chemistry courses you will be asked to memorize the names and symbols for more than 50 frequently encountered ions. This task is simplified by the patterns for ion charges that are found in the periodic table. Learning these rules and patterns will help you to speak the language of chemistry.
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Module 7 – Writing Names and Formulas © 2009 www.ChemReview.Net v.m8 Page 129 Categories of Ions 1. All ions are either positive or negative. Positive ions are termed cations (pronounced KAT-eye-ons). The charges on positive ions can be 1+, 2+, 3+, or 4+. Negative ions are termed anions (pronounced ANN-eye-ons). The charges on negative ions can be 1 , 2 , or 3 . 2. All ions are either monatomic or polyatomic. A monatomic ion is composed of a single atom. Examples of monatomic ions are Na + , Al 3 + , Cl , and S 2 . A polyatomic ion is a particle that has two or more covalently bonded atoms and an overall electric charge. Examples of polyatomic ions are OH , Hg 2 2 + , NH 4 + , and SO 4 2 . Ions of Hydrogen Hydrogen has unique characteristics. It is classified as a nonmetal, and in most of its compounds hydrogen bonds covalently. In compounds classified as acids, hydrogen can form H + ions (protons). When bonded to metal atoms, hydrogen behaves as a hydride ion (H ). The Structure and Charge of Metal Ions More than 70% of the elements in the periodic table are metal atoms. Geologically, in the earth’s crust, most metals are found as metal ions . When metal ions are found in rocks from which the ions can be extracted and converted to metals, the rocks have economic value and are termed ores . Famous exceptions to the “metals are found as ions” rule include the coinage metals: copper and silver, which may be found geologically both as ions or in their metallic, elemental form, and gold, which is always found in nature as a metal. In reactions , neutral metal atoms tend to lose electrons to form positive ions.
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