Ch3new10 - Chapter 3: Managing the Information Systems...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Managing the Information Systems Project D. Harrison McKnight D. Eli Broad College of Eli Business Business ESSENTIAL 2 Know Key terms – Skills of an effective project manager – Activities of project manager during Activities all phases of a project all – Differences between Gantt, PERT – – How to build PERT, Gantt chart Project Management: A Rationale Systems projects can be expensive Systems projects are risky, uncertain, likely to Systems fail “failures occur with alarming frequency” “failures Good Project Management can improve the Good likelihood of system development success likelihood You need to know the project management You processes/practices being used today! processes/practices Overview of Chapter 3 Key Key Project Mgmt. purpose: Project control control Key role: Project Manager Key The Project Management process / The subphases subphases Representing Project Plans (PERT, Gantt) Key Project Mgmt. purpose: Project control Projects often “Escalate” unnecessarily Escalation: Continued commitment in the face of Escalation: negative feedback and uncertainty about project negative Escalation occurs for Psychological reasons, etc. – – – – Prior history of success Felt responsibility for project outcome Errors in processing project information Emotional attachment to the project (source: Keil, 1995, “Pulling the Plug…” MIS Quarterly) (source: Project management can help clear it up The Mythical Work-Month The Estimation – – – (Brooks, 1975) (Guestimation) Pitfalls All will go well... Effort = progress If behind plan, add people “I know no way of judging the future but by the past.” know - Patrick Henry Patrick “You can never plan the future by the past.” - Edmund Burke Key role: Project Manager Key Key skills: Key Leadership, Management, Technical, Conflict management, Communication, Relationship building, Influencing, Prioritizing, Negotiation, Financial analysis, Expediting Financial Example: American Airlines Transfer Pricing Example: System Project Leader Buddy Reffner System – – Project mandated by the CEO Must deliver in 4.5 months The Project Management process: An Overview Overview Four major substages: – Project Initiation – Project Planning – Project Execution – Project Closedown Project Initiation: Activities Project Establish project team (include user/client) Build customer relationship Build Establish Project Initiation Plan—e.g. create Establish a SSR: System Service Request SSR: Establish management procedures Establish Project Workbook Develop Project Charter Project Planning: Activities Project Define and describe project scope Identify alternative system solutions Divide project into sequenced tasks (work breakdown structure) (work Estimate resources needed by task (e.g., using Estimate COCOMO—Constructive COst MOdelling) COCOMO—Constructive Create resource plan Develop a preliminary schedule (Gantt, PERT) Project Planning: MORE Activities Project Develop a communication plan Determine projects standards, procedures Identify and assess project risks Create a preliminary budget Develop Detail Project Scope Statement Create a Baseline Project Plan (BPP) – – – System description Feasibility assessment Management issues Project Execution: Activities Project Carry out the Baseline Project Plan Monitor progress against the BPP Manage changes to the plan Maintain the Project Workbook Communicate project status to Communicate stakeholders stakeholders Project Closedown: Activities Project Reassign personnel Performance appraisals Finalize project documentation Celebrate team efforts Elicit feedback from customers Close the customer contract Project Planning Techniques Project Gantt – – – Visually shows Task Duration Shows Time Overlap of Tasks Shows Slack Time visually PERT – – – – Chart Chart Shows Task Interdependencies Shows Sequence of Tasks Shows Slack Time as #s on chart Shows Critical Path Calculating Expected Time Calculating If – – – – for a given activity: ET = expected time to complete o = optimistic completion time r = realistic completion time p = pessimistic completion time Then: – ET = (o + 4r + p) / 6 PERT Chart Notation Basics PERT Task # ET = TE = TL = Slack = Task # TE = TL = ET = Slack = ET = Estimated Task Duration ET TE = Earliest Task Completion Time TL = Latest Task Completion Time Latest Slack = TL - TE PERT Steps PERT 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. Identify project tasks. Determine duration (expected time-ET) for each task. Determine task interdependencies. Draw project network with tasks, durations, and dependencies. dependencies. 5. Calculate and record TE for each event. 6. Calculate and record TL for each event. 7. Calculate and record slack time for each task. 8. Identify critical path Calculating TE Calculating Work forward from the first task. TE (Task 1) = ET (Task 1) For all other tasks: For If there is one predecessor task – TE(this task) = ET(this task) + TE(predecessor task) If there are two or more predecessor tasks – Compute TE for each alternative – Select highest TE Calculating TL Calculating Work backward from the last task. TL (Last Task) = TE (Last Task) (Last For all other tasks: For If there is one subsequent task – TL(this task) = TL(subsequent task) (subsequent ET (subsequent task) ET If there are two or more subsequent tasks – Compute TL for each alternative – Select lowest TL TE(this task) = ET(this task) + TE(predecessor task) E(this ET(this TL(this task) = TL(subsequent task) - ET (subsequ. task) L(this L(subsequent ET PERT Example PERT Activity Pre. Act. ET 1. Define Problem 2. Study Current System ­ 1 1 4 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 4 4 4 3 3. Interview Users 4. Initial Analysis Report 7. Structured English 8. Prepare Report 1 2, 3 5 6, 7 2 1 3 2 TE TL Slack Final PERT Chart Final 1 ET: 1 TE: 1 TL: 1 Sl: 0 5 2 ET: 4 TE: 5 TL: 5 Sl: 0 3 ET: 2 TE: 3 TL: 5 Sl: 2 4 ET: 1 TE: 6 TL: 6 Sl: 0 ET: 4 TE: 10 TL: 10 Sl: 0 6 ET: 3 TE: 9 TL: 13 Sl: 4 7 ET: 3 TE: 13 TL: 13 Sl: 0 8 ET: 2 TE: 15 TL: 15 Sl: 0 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 Gantt Chart Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 11111 0 12345 1. Define Problem 2. Study System 3. Interview Users Sl ak 4. Initial An. Rept. 5. Develop ERD 6. Develop DFDs 7. Struct. English 8. Prepare Report s l a k Recap Recap Learned basic project management concepts Learned project management activities Learned differences between Gantt and PERT Learned how to construct a PERT or Gantt chart ESSENTIAL 2 Know Key terms – Skills of an effective project manager – Activities of project manager during Activities all phases of a project all – Differences between Gantt, PERT – How to build a PERT, Gantt chart – ...
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