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Confirmatio1 - Confirmation Most existing species can be...

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Confirmation: Most existing species can be organized rather easily in a nested hierarchical classification. This is evident in the use of the Linnaean classification scheme. Based on shared derived characters, closely related organisms can be placed in one group (such as a genus), several genera can be grouped together into one family, several families can be grouped together into an order, etc. As a specific example (see Figure 1 ), plants can be classified as vascular and nonvascular (i.e. they have or lack xylem and phloem). Nested within the vascular group, there are two divisions, seed and non-seed plants. Further nested within the seed plants are two more groups, the angiosperms (which have enclosed, protected seeds) and the gymnosperms (having non-enclosed seeds). Within the angiosperm group are the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. Most importantly, the standard phylogenetic tree and nearly all less inclusive evolutionary phylogenies have statistically significant, high values of hierarchical structure (Baldauf et al . 2000 ; Brown et al . 2001 ; Hillis 1991 ; Hillis and Huelsenbeck 1992 ; Klassen et al . 1991 NN). Figure 1.2.1. A plot of the CI values of cladograms versus the number of taxa in the cladograms . CI values are on the y-axis; taxa number are on the x-axis. The 95% confidence
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limits are shown in light turquoise. All points above and to the right of the turquoise region are statistically significant high CI values. Similarly, all points below and to the left of the turquoise region are statistically significant low values of CI. (reproduced from Klassen et al . 1991 , Figure 6).
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