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Molecular evidenc1 - Molecular evidence Redundant...

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Molecular evidence - Redundant pseudogenes Other molecular examples that provide evidence of common ancestry are curious DNA sequences known as pseudogenes. Pseudogenes are very closely related to functional, protein- coding genes. The similarity involves both the primary DNA sequence and often the specific chromosomal location of the genes. The functional counterparts of pseudogenes are normal genes that are transcribed into mRNA, which is in turn actively translated into functional protein. In contrast, pseudogenes have faulty regulatory sequences that prevent the gene from being transcribed into mRNA, or they have internal stop codons that keep the functional protein from being made. In this sense, pseudogenes are molecular examples of vestigial structures . However, pseudogenes are included here under a separate prediction because many pseudogenes are unusual in an additional way. Morphological vestiges have lost their original function, and the organism carrying the vestige has likewise lost that function. In contrast, pseudogenes have lost their original function, yet the organism itself may still retain that function if it carries the functional counterpart of these pseudogenes. Pseudogenes that are vestigial in the morphological sense, like the vitamin C synthesis pseudogene, are considered in prediction 2.3 . The remaining type of pseudogene, in which an organism carries both a functional gene and one or more counterpart pseudogenes, is hereafter termed a "redundant pseudogene".
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