The Evolution of Improved Fitness Creationist responses The evolution of antibody gene affinity by mutation and natural selection has not been widely cited to counter the creationist claim that mutations can never lead to improved fitness. However, I have presented this argument at several debates with creationist spokesman Duane Gish of the Institute for Creation Research, who received a Ph.D. in biochemistry. Below I consider the two objections raised by Dr. Gish to the antibody evolution argument. 6.1 Evolution of mutated antibodies would be too slow. As described below, Gish has rejected the idea of somatic mutation of antibody genes, stating at a public debate with me that "a sick person would die" before high-affinity mutated antibodies could evolve. This claim reveals Gish's ignorance of immunology. There are many immune mechanisms other than antigen-specific antibodies that protect us in the early stages of infection before the highest affinity antibodies are made. These include cell-mediated immunity as well as
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