Types of mutations and their effects

Types of mutations and their effects - Types of mutations...

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Types of mutations and their effects Mutations are changes in the genome (genetic constitution). There are quite a number of ways in which mutations can happen. They also differ in the way that they impact evolution. Mutations which occur when the genome is copied during reproduction are known as vertical transfer mutations. They are called vertical transfer mutations because they are transferred from ancestor to descendent along vertical lines of descent. In the original work on population genetics it was assumed that all mutations were vertical transfer mutations. Horizontal transfer mutations occur when DNA is moved from one organism to another. Horizontal transfer can be a major source of evolutionary novelty. It is important because new genes can be propagated much more rapidly by horizontal transfer than by vertical transfer. If evolution is depicted by the tree, vertical genetic movement is the transmission of genes down branches; horizontal genetic movement is the transmission of genes between the branches. Intra-organism transfer mutations occur when genes or parts of genes move around within an organism. Strictly speaking, hybrids (mating across species) are not mutants. In many groups of species, particularly among plants, genes are transferred from to one species to another via hybrids. Types of mutations: 1. Point mutations The most common type of copying error is the point mutation. In this form of mutation the nucleotide at a site is replaced by a different nucleotide. When people talk about mutation rates they are usually talking about rates of point mutations. Effects of point mutations
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2011 for the course BIO BSC1010 taught by Professor Gwenhauner during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Types of mutations and their effects - Types of mutations...

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