Conducting Research

Conducting Research - Observation can take the form of...

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Conducting Research The Logic of Science.  Sociology is a social science. Science assumes that every event or action  results from an antecedent cause-that is, cause-and-effect relationships prevail in the universe. These  causes and effects can be observed and measured, and sociologists look for  correlations  among  variables  as a way of doing so. How Do Sociologists Collect Data?  Four major techniques of data collection are available to sociologists: experiments, surveys, observation,  and archival research. In the  experiment, researchers work with an  experimental group  and a  control  group  to test the effects of an  independent variable  on a  dependent variable.  Interviewing and  questionnaires constitute the primary techniques used in  surveys,  using  random  or  stratified random  samples.
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Unformatted text preview: Observation can take the form of participant observation or unobtrusive observation. Other techniques include archival research and feminist methodology. • Steps in the Scientific Method: A Close-up Look. The scientific method includes selecting a researchable problem, reviewing the literature, formulating a hypothesis, creating an operational definition, choosing a research design, collecting the data, analyzing the data, and stating conclusions. • Research Ethics It is important that sociologists observe the ethics of their discipline in carrying out research. They have an obligation not to expose their subjects to substantial risk or personal harm in the research process and to protect the rights and dignity of their subjects....
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