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Jean Jacques Rousseau - JeanJacquesRousseau(17121778...

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Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Rousseau is one of the so-called "Philosophes" and was a contributor to Diderot's Encyclopedia. his most famous work is "Emile," a book on education (take-aways : development of whole person instead of mere discipline and facts). Rousseau, in early writings, took the opposite position from Hobbes : the state of nature is idyllic, not chaotic. “Civilization” has been our downfall. Results have been corruption, tyranny, etc. In later writing he was more like Locke : state of nature not war but one in need of some improvement through cooperation. There are things we want that we might only be able to achieved jointly. Joining together via social contract creates civil society (note, NOT government, per se). Sovereignty goes to the state from the general will. Governmental authority is delegated authority. For our purposes, the innovation here is the concept of "The General Will" as a sort of new sovereign and the implicit social contract in which the "pure individual" gives something up to become a part of a collective. There are hints here of an idea we'll see in Durkheim and in Simmel in slightly different forms. One way to express this is that the social person is not only an individual but is literally "part social."
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