REFERENCE GROUP - voluntary group . On the other hand, if...

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REFERENCE GROUP A reference group is composed of individuals possesing a set of similar characteristics which are used as standards by other individuals in evaluating their own behavior. Reference groups in many cases are not true groups in that the individuals who make up the refernce group may not share the common identity characteristic of groups. PEER GROUP A peer group is made up of individuals of relatively equal status with whom the individual interacts frequently. VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY GROUPS Groups may be classified according to how members become members. If an individual select to become a member of a group then that group can be referred to as a
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Unformatted text preview: voluntary group . On the other hand, if an individual becomes a member of a group, as a result of factors over which he/she has no control, then the group may be referred to as an involuntary group . BUREAUCRACY A bureaucracy is a large and complex formal organizational structure in which efficiency is achieved through a system of professional managers who control and direct the activities of the organization according to distinct rules and guidelines. WEBER'S CHARACTERISTICS OF A BUREAUCRACY 1. Division of Labor 2. Hierarchy. A bureaucrcy has "Chain of command." 3.Written Rules. 4. Professional Managers. 5. Depersonalization of Individuals....
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