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Addiction I - Addiction I 1 FEATURES OF ADDICTION Should it...

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Unformatted text preview: Addiction I 1. FEATURES OF ADDICTION Should it be limited to certain drugs, or to any behaviour that can exhibit broadly addictive tendencies? Certainly there is good evidence that dopamine is involved, in both human beings and other animals, in response to the main addictive chemicals: alcohol, opiates, cannabis, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anesthetics (e.g. angel dust), some volatile solvents (glue, whiteout etc). The main exception is LSD and similar hallucinogens, which animals will not self-administer. Different substances give rise to the same distinctive patterns in both humans and animals: steady low dose for opiates; binge and abstinence for stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines, and for alcohol; steady high dose for barbiturates. Evidence is less clear for behavioral addictions. Standard features include: 1. Euphoria on consumption and dysphoria on absence of consumption (though contrast alcohol and cigarettes); primary euphoria (from the alcohol) or secondary (from the behavior that alcohol...
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