Maternal Smoking has immediate effects such as hindering oxygenation of blood to the baby, as well as long-term effects like deficits in growth and learning abilities. Obstetrical Medication although prescribed by a doctor, studies have found that pain medication given during labor (in larger doses) have been correlated with sluggish, less animated infant behavior during the first few weeks of life. This has a common effect of hindering the parent-infant bond. In addition, these children have been found to have poor motor coordination and cognitive deficits up to a year old. Maternal Emotional State (Just hang on a second before you make any comments) often overlooked; since more than half of the pregnancies in this country are unplanned, there nay be guilt, anxiety, and depression, all of which are mediated by hormonal reactions which pass through the placenta to the baby. Thus, a rise in adrenaline in mom also occurs in baby. This can be damaging when prolonged, but temporary reactions are not as damaging. Highly emotional mothers during pregnancy have been linked with highly active, irritable
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