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Preoperational - permanence may occur earlier children also...

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Preoperational - ages 2-7. During this stage mental reasoning begins, egocentrism reduces as child approaches end of stage, magical belief system disappears, etc. 1. Egocentrism - infant is only able to perceive the world from their own point of view. c) Concrete operational - ages 7-12. child develops the ability to perform complex intellectual operations such as conservation, classification, seriation, and temporal relationships. 1. conservation - realization that changing the form of an object/substance does not change it's amount. 2. classification 3. seriation - putting items in order according to size. 4. temporal relations - concept of first, second, last, before, after, etc. d) Formal operational - ages 11-15. period when the person learns hypothetical reasoning. Now they can function purely on a symbolic, abstract level. 3) Some Problems with Piaget's Theory a) Piaget may have underestimated the cognitive abilities of children (especially when very young) - object
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Unformatted text preview: permanence may occur earlier; children also may be less egocentric (or at least be able to understand another persons perspective). b) What about individual differences? What about when a child displays behaviors from several different stages? Ever seen an infant do something incredible and sophisticated cognitively? c) This theory is a true stage theory, which may be inappropriate. His estimates for passing through each stage are based on age. However, it is possible that children advance through stages in response to environmental factors, not just age. For example, children may begin to walk, on average, between ages 1-2 years, but the the old adage "he/she will walk when ready, may be correct. A child may be capable of walking at 1 year old, but not receive proper motivation or environmental factors to go ahead and actually begin walking....
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