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Punishment - teach many students adequately when each child...

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Punishment - Whereas reinforcement increases the probability of a response occurring again, the premise of punishment is to decrease the frequency or probability of a response occurring again. a) Skinner did not believe that punishment was as powerful a form of control as reinforcement, even though it is the so commonly used. Thus, it is not truly the opposite of reinforcement like he originally thought, and the effects are normally short-lived. b) there are two types of punishment: 1) Positive - presentation of an aversive stimulus to decrease the probability of an operant response occurring again. For example, a child reaches for a cookie before dinner, and you slap his hand. 2) Negative - the removal of a pleasant stimulus to decrease the probability of an operant response occurring again. For example, each time a child says a curse word, you remove one dollar from their piggy bank. 6. Applications of Operant Conditioning a) In the Classroom Skinner thought that our education system was ineffective. He suggested that one teacher in a classroom could not
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Unformatted text preview: teach many students adequately when each child learns at a different rate. He proposed using teaching machines (what we now call computers) that would allow each student to move at their own pace. The teaching machine would provide self-paced learning that gave immediate feedback, immediate reinforcement, identification of problem areas, etc., that a teacher could not possibly provide. b) In the Workplace I already gave the example of piece work in factories. Another example - study by Pedalino & Gamboa (1974) - To help reduce the frequency of employee tardiness, the researchers implemented a game-like system for all employees that arrived on time. When an employee arrived on time, they were allowed to draw a card. Over the course of a 5-day workweek, the employee would have a full hand for poker. At the end of the week, the best hand won $20. This simple method reduced employee tardiness significantly and demonstrated the effectiveness of operant conditioning on humans....
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