See Baumeister and Leary, op cit. This is what underpins the mechanism of what Pettit and Brennan call ‘the intangible hand’. See ‘Hands Invisible and Intangible’, Synthese 94 (1993) 191–225. 4 The former is the basis of Seligman’s notion of Learned Helplessness; the latter, of Bandura’s notion of Self-Efficacy. 5 E. Deci and R. Ryan ‘The Support of Autonomy and the Control of Behavior’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55 (1987) 1024–37, at p. 1024. In a footnote to this passage they remark that the distinction should be understood as marking the ends of a continuum, rather than a sharp break. Although they talk here of control coming from environmental force, in fact this seems to be entirely other people. 6 Especially of his later writing where, as Scanlon notes, the stress moves to the issue of identification, and away from that of moral responsibility. See ‘Identification and Externality’ in The Importance of What
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University of Cambridge, Scanlon, R. Ryan, R. Ryan ‘The, ‘The Faintest Passion