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THE BETWEEN vs WITHIN SUBJECTS DESIGN 1) Between-subjects design: in this type of design, each participant participates in one and only one group. The results from each group are then compared to each other to examine differences, and thus, effective of the IV. For example, in a study examining the effect of Bayer aspirin vs Tylenol on headaches, we can have 2 groups (those getting Bayer and those getting Tylenol). Participants get either Bayer OR Tylenol, but they do NOT get both. T 2) Within-subjects design: in this design, participants get all of the treatments/conditions. For example, in the study presented above (Bayer vs Tylenol), each participant would get the Bayer, the effectiveness measured, and then each would get Tylenol, then the effectiveness measured. See the differences? VALIDITY vs RELIABILITY Validity - does the test measure what we want it to measure? If yes, then it is valid.
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Unformatted text preview: For Example - does a stress inventory/test actually measure the amount of stress in a person's life and not something else. Reliability- is the test consistent? If we get same results over and over, then reliable. For Example - an IQ test - probably won't change if you take it several times. Thus, if it produces the same (or very, very similar) results each time it is taken, then it is reliable. However, a test can be reliable without being valid, so we must be careful. For Example - the heavier your head, the smarter you are. If I weighed your head at the same time each day, once a day, for a week, it would be virtually the same weight each day. This means that the test is reliable. But, do you think this test is valid (that is indeed measures your level of "smartness")? Probably NOT, and therefore, it is not valid....
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