Covert stimuli - causing a behavior to be maintained more...

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Covert stimuli- -events inside the organism that trigger a given behavior. Chaining - The situation in which one response brings the organism into contact with stimuli that: 1) reinforce that response, and (2) stimulate the next response. There may be many "links" in a complex response chain. Chaining can also involve other people; for example, one person's response can both reinforce another person's response and determine the next course of action. Reinforcement Schedules: (a) Continuous Reinforcement Schedule . The reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs. (e.g., getting a soda out of a machine every time you put money in it) (b) Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule When we reinforce a behavior only sometimes instead of every time it happens. (a) Fixed Interval Schedule A schedule whereby a reinforcer is given at established time intervals. (e.g., a weekly paycheck) (b) Variable Interval Schedule A schedule whereby reinforcement is given at various times, usually
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Unformatted text preview: causing a behavior to be maintained more consistently. (e) Fixed Ratio Schedule A schedule whereby reinforcement is given only after a certain number of responses is made. Example: payment by piecework. ( f) Variable Ratio Schedule A schedule whereby reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. Example: slot machine. (g) Combined Schedule (h) DRO Differential reinforcement of zero response rate. (omission training) (hh) Sometimes DRO is read to mean differential reinforcement of "other"--that is, any behavior other than one that we want to get rid of. So if Johnny is engaging in physical violence toward other children, any other response might be reinforced. (i) DRL Differential reinforcement of a low rate of responding level. (fixed interval schedule) (j) DRH Differential reinforcement of high rate of responding. The basic principle if a person is only doing something occasionally....
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