IMMANUAL KANT, (1724-1804) . Stress on unity of a perceptual act. When we perceive, we encounter mental states which might seem composed of bits and pieces (the associationists' and empiricists' sensory elements), but the mind forms or creates a unitary experience, rather than fashioning a percept through the mechanical process of association. This is a position contrary to the very heart of associationism. . HERMANN EBBINGHAUS (1850-1909). While not a precursor of Gestalt psychology itself, with his work more in the psychophysical tradition, Ebbinghaus was the first person to study MEMORY experimentally . He developed the method of studying nonsense syllables with the apparatus called the "memory drum." Most of his findings were not surprising -- better learning comes from a greater number of original learning trials, from a smaller interval between learning and relearning, from a smaller list of syllables, etc. He investigated the effects of spaced versus massed learning, finding that in general, active learning of spaced material is most effective. Meaningful material was much easier to learn than nonsense syllables. This was the first time a
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