OSWALD KULPE. (1862-1915) . A student of Muller and Wundt, and later founded THE WURZBURG SCHOOL. a. Muller had drawn attention to the effects of what later came to be called "proactive interference"--old learning interfering with the effects of new learning. b . Kulpe aimed to develop a scientific psyhchology that would include complex phenomena such as thinking, judging, remembering, and doubting. (Wundt believed that such phenomena were beyond the reach of experimental methods). At Wurzburg, in 1901, Kulpe's students A. Mayer and J. Orth questioned subjects about the associations that came freely into their mind during thinking. They reported complex, detailed associations. Their subjects reported many different patterns and types of associations. c. Imageless thought. Kulpe refuted the idea that thought must have images. d. Perceptual set or "mental set." Kulpe identified this determining tendency affecting what we perceive. e. Max Wertheimer
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