PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS

PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS - PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS...

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PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS Between 560 and 500 B.C. the Persians under Cyrus the Great, his son Cambyses, and his successor Darius, conquered much of the Middle East. The Empire stretched from Egypt and Arabia to Babylon, the Indus Valley, and Thrace. Even Macedon paid submission. The Persian infantry and cavalry seemed invincible, and after Persia formed an alliance with Carthage, the Greek cities along the West Coast of Turkey were no match for the Empire. The simple, clean lines of the great Doric temples date from this Persian era. But as Persia extended itself, Athens was fortifying itself and building the greatest Navy in history. The Greeks developed better armor, longer spears, and better athletic training. One Persian fleet was shipwrecked in 492 B.C., a second was defeated by the Athenians at Marathon in 490, the Persian commander Xerxes lost much of his fleet at Salamis in 480, and in the same year the Carthaginians were badly beaten. In 479 Xerxes lost the rest of his fleet and the land army he had left in Greece. In 478 Greeks united in the Delian League (which held its meetings and kept its money on the island of Delos) for protection against Persia. The League's force of 300 ships and 60,000 men freed other Greek cities around the Aegean, who in turn joined the league. Athens contributed the most ships, commanded the fleet, and became ever more dominant politically and financially as decades passed. Finally it started using the Delian money to build temples and other adornments in Athens. In 449 Greece made peace with Persia and in 447 Athens began construction of the Parthenon, but the Delian confederacy continued. During these years, Pericles became leader of Athens and the symbol of its golden age of art, drama, architecture, and poetry. There was no system of higher education per se, but a group of teachers developed who mostly taught young men of the upper classes. Most of these philosophers were orators who presented their views forcefully and well. Responding to all this,
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PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS - PROTAGORAS AND THE SOPHISTS...

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