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Chpt17pptteachter - Groundwater Chapter 17 Goalsoflearning...

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Groundwater Chapter 17
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Goals of learning Distribution of groundwater in and beneath the Earths surface. Water tables Relationship between groundwater and the water table Porosity and permeability influence the storage and movement of groundwater Importance of hydraulic gradient Springs and geysers Wells: unconfined, confined and perched Groundwater problems: nonrenewable, subsidence contamination Erosion and deposition by groundwater
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Figure 17.1
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Importance of groundwater Misconception: that groundwater moves in rivers underground. Groundwater is water found in the pore spaces between soil and sediment, as well as narrow fractures and joints in bedrock. gw collects in and moves through these openings Groundwater is the largest reservoir of fresh water that is readily available to humans 0.6 % of all water is groundwater. 14% of fresh water
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Table 17.1
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Figure 17.3
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 Importance of groundwater Geological role of groundwater As an erosional agent, dissolving groundwater produces: Sinkholes Caverns Groundwater serves to average out streamflow Sustains streams during periods of low or no rainfall
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Figure 17.1A
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Figure 17.1B
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Distribution of groundwater Infiltration of rainwater is the source of groundwater. Influenced by Slope, underlying impervious materials impede infiltration Zone of soil moisture – water held by molecular attraction (surface tension) on soil particles in the near-surface zone Water not held as soil moisture percolates downward Zone of saturation - Water percolates down until it reaches a zone where all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water
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The zone of saturation , also called the phreatic zone is where there is groundwater Water table – the upper limit of the zone of saturation Capillary fringe – extends up from the water table and is held by surface tension within the pores of sediment and rock The zone of aeration or vadose zone also the unsaturated zone or is the area above the water table containing both air and water. It includes the capillary fringe and the zone of soil moisture. This water is not available to wells because surface tension keeps it from moving
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Distribution of groundwater
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The water table The water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation. Importance: predicts well productivity Explains the flow of streams and springs Explains the fluctuations in lake levels
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Variations in the water table Depth is highly variable Varies seasonally and from year to year depending upon: Season, quantity, distribution, timing Surface of water table is usually a subdued replica of the surface topography. Wetlands and lakes are at the water table
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2011 for the course GEOL 1301 taught by Professor Gelbaum during the Fall '11 term at Georgia Perimeter.

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Chpt17pptteachter - Groundwater Chapter 17 Goalsoflearning...

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