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# unit7 - Data Structures Data processing often involves in...

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Data Structures -- Data processing often involves in processing huge volumes of data. Many Companies handle million records of data stored in database. Many ways are formulated to handle data efficiently. -- An User-defined data type is a combination of different primary data types, which represents a complex entity. -- An Abstract Data Type ( A D T ) not only represents a set of complex data objects, but also includes a set of operations to be performed on these objects, defines that how the data objects are organized. -- The group of methods implements a set rules, which defines a logical way of handling data. -- The complex entity along with its group of methods is called Abstract Data Type ( A D T ) . -- Data structure is described as an instance of Abstract Data Type ( ADT ). -- We can define that Data structure is a kind of representation of logical relationship between related data elements. In data structure, decision on the operations such as storage, retrieval and access must be carried out between the logically related data elements. Data Structure Linear Non-Linear Stacks Queues Trees Graphs Linear Lists Some Data structures Arrays Strings Lists Stacks Queues Trees Graphs Dictionaries Maps Hash Tables Sets Lattice Neural-Nets Some Common Operations on Data structures Insertion : adding a new element to the collection. Deletion : removing an element from a collection. Traversal : access and examine each element in collection. Search : find whether an element is present or not. Sorting : rearranging elements in a particular order. Merging : combining two collections into one collection.

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Arrays – Linked Lists What is a Linked List The elements of a linked list are not constrained to be stored in adjacent locations. The individual elements are stored “somewhere” in memory, rather like a family dispersed, but still bound together. The order of the elements is maintained by explicit links between them. Limitations of Arrays 1) Fixed in size : Once an array is created, the size of array cannot be increased or decreased. 2) Wastage of space : If no. of elements are less, leads to wastage of space. 3) Sequential Storage : Array elements are stored in contiguous memory locations. At the times it might so happen that enough contiguous locations might not be available. Even though the total space requirement of an array can be met through a combination of non-contiguous blocks of memory, we would still not be allowed to create the array. 4) Possibility of overflow : If program ever needs to process more than the size of array, there is a possibility of overflow and code breaks. 5) Difficulty in insertion and deletion : In case of insertion of a new element, each element after the specified location has to be shifted one position to the right. In case of deletion of an element, each element after the specified location has to be shifted one position to the left. The Linked List is a collection of elements called
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unit7 - Data Structures Data processing often involves in...

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