ssg_m10l34 - Module 10 MULTIMEDIA SYNCHRONIZATION Version 2...

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Module 10 MULTIMEDIA SYNCHRONIZATION Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur
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Lesson 34 References Model and Specification Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur
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Instructional objectives At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to : 1. State why a reference model is needed. 2. Give some examples of multi-layer reference model 3. Define the roles of media layer, stream layer, object layer and specification layer. 4. State why synchronization is more complex in distributed environment 5. State the mechanisms for achieving distributed environment synchronization 34.0 Introduction In lesson-33, we had studied the basic synchronization requirements for multimedia communication. Although we explained the basic issues, run-time mechanisms to support execution of synchronization can only be explained with respect to a reference model. This will be our focus for this lesson. In addition, we shall also cover the synchronization aspects in distributed environment. We shall also study which specifications are needed to specify synchronization. 34.1 Multi layer reference model The reference model that is used to execute synchronization is organized in multiple layers. At the highest layer of abstraction, we have the application layer and at the lowest layer, we have the physical, or the media layer. The reference model is used to classify the multiple synchronization systems and the existing classification methods are : Little and Ghafoor [1] identified a physical level, system level and a human level for synchronization but gave no description of synchronization. Gibbs et al [2] map a synchronized multimedia object to an uninterrupted byte stream. Ehley et al [3] classify intermedia synchronization techniques that are used to control jitter between media streams according to the type and location of the synchronization control. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur
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Meyer et al [4] proposed a three layer classification scheme. It consists of a media layer for intra-stream synchronization, a stream layer for inter- stream synchronization and an object layer for the presentation. Blackowski-Steinmetz [5] proposed a four layer reference model to be used for the synchronization classification. This will be presented in the next section. 34.2 Blackowski –Steinmetz four layer reference model The four layer reference model is illustrated in fig 34.1 Specification Layer Object Layer Stream Layer Multimedia application Level of abstraction High Low Media Layer Fig 34.1 Blackowski –Steinmetz four layer reference model.
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course ECKOW 123 taught by Professor Riuyt during the Spring '11 term at University of Damascus.

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ssg_m10l34 - Module 10 MULTIMEDIA SYNCHRONIZATION Version 2...

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