006_RFW6e_ESL_Challenges_(pages_224-268)

006_RFW6e_ESL_Challenges_(pages_224-268) -...

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ESL Challenges 28. Verbs 224 29. Articles and types of nouns 242 30. Sentence structure 253 31. Prepositions and idiomatic expressions 264
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This section of Rules for Writers is primarily for multilingual writers. You may Fnd this section helpful if you learned English as a second language (ESL) or if you speak a language other than English with your friends and family. ON THE WEB > dianahacker.com/rules ESL help 28 Verbs Both native and nonnative speakers of English encounter the following challenges with verbs, which are treated elsewhere in this book: making subjects and verbs agree (21) using irregular verb forms (27a) leaving off verb endings (27c, 27d) choosing the correct verb tense (27f ) avoiding inappropriate uses of the passive voice (8a) This section focuses on the major challenges that verbs can cause for multilingual writers. 28a Use the appropriate verb form and tense. This section offers a brief review of English verb forms and tenses. See the chart on pages 233–35 for an overview of verb usage. ±or additional help, see 27f and 62c. Basic verb forms Every main verb in English has Fve forms, which are used to create all of the verb tenses in standard English. The chart at the top of page 225 shows these forms for the regular verb help and the irregular verbs give and be. ( Be has the six forms listed in the chart as well as am and are , used in the present tense. See 27a for a list of common irregular verbs.) 224 ESL Challenges ESL 28
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Simple tenses for general facts, states of being, habitual actions SIMPLE PRESENT (BASE FORM OR - S FORM) Simple present tense shows general facts, constant states, or habitual or repetitive actions. It is also used for scheduled future events. (For uses of the present tense in writing about literature, see p. 217.) We donate to a different charity each year. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The plane leaves tomorrow at 6:30 p.m. SIMPLE PAST (BASE FORM 1 -ED OR -D OR IRREGULAR FORM) Simple past tense expresses actions that happened at a speci±c time or during a speci±c period in the past. It can also show states of being and repetitive actions that have ended. It is often accompa- nied by a word (such as ago or yesterday ) or a phrase ( in 1902 , last year ) that indicates a speci±c past time. (See 27a for irregular past-tense forms.) She drove to Montana three years ago. When I was young, I usually walked to school with my sister. SIMPLE FUTURE ( WILL 1 BASE FORM) Simple future tense expresses actions that will happen at some time in the future as well as promises or predictions of future events. I will call you next week. Verbs 225 ESL 28a Basic verb forms VERB FORM REGULAR VERB IRREGULAR IRREGULAR HELP VERB GIVE VERB BE BASE FORM help give be PAST TENSE helped gave was, were PAST PARTICIPLE helped given been PRESENT PARTICIPLE helping giving being - S FORM helps gives is
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Simple progressive forms for continuing actions PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ( AM , IS , ARE 1 PRESENT PARTICIPLE) Present progressive verbs show actions that are in progress at the present time but are not expected to remain constant or to continue indefinitely. Present progressive forms of verbs
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course LEGAL PA101 taught by Professor Pamelabasmajian during the Winter '11 term at Kaplan University.

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006_RFW6e_ESL_Challenges_(pages_224-268) -...

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