011_RFW6e_Basics_(pages_529-564)

011_RFW6e_Basics_(pages_529-564) - 529-564_63657_Part X.qxd...

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Basics 62. Parts of speech 530 63. Sentence patterns 543 64. Subordinate word groups 552 65. Sentence types 561
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62 Parts of speech Traditional grammar recognizes eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Many words can function as more than one part of speech. For example, depending on its use in a sentence, the word paint can be a noun ( The paint is wet ) or a verb ( Please paint the ceiling next ). A quick-reference chart of the parts of speech appears on pages 540–42. 62a Nouns As most schoolchildren can attest, a noun is the name of a per- son, place, thing, or concept. NN N The cat in gloves catches no mice. N Action is the antidote to despair . Nouns sometimes function as adjectives modifying other nouns. Because of their dual roles, nouns used in this manner may be called noun/adjectives. N/ADJ N/ADJ You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. Nouns are classi±ed for a variety of purposes. When capitalization is the issue, we speak of proper versus common nouns (see 45a). If the problem is one of word choice, we may speak of concrete versus abstract nouns (see 18b). The distinction between count nouns and noncount nouns is useful primarily for nonnative speakers of English (see 29b). The term collective noun refers to a set of nouns that may cause problems with subject- verb or pronoun-antecedent agreement (see 21f and 22b). EXERCISE 62–1 Underline the nouns (and noun/adjectives) in the fol- lowing sentences. Answers to lettered sentences appear in the back of the book. Example: 530 Basics basic 62
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Idle hands are the devil’s workshop . a. The sun will set without your assistance. —Hebrew proverb b. Pride is at the bottom of all great mistakes. —John Ruskin c. Success breeds conFdence. —Beryl Markham d. The ultimate censorship is the ±ick of the dial. —Tom Smothers e. Our national ±ower is the concrete cloverleaf. —Lewis Mumford 1. Truthfulness so often goes with ruthlessness. —Dodie Smith 2. Luck is a matter of preparation meeting opportunity. —Oprah Winfrey 3. Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. —Henry Kaiser 4. A woman must have money and a room of her own. —Virginia Woolf 5. Language helps form the limits of our reality. —Dale Spender ON THE WEB > dianahacker.com/rules Grammar exercises > Basics > E-ex 62–1 62b Pronouns A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Usually the pro- noun substitutes for a speciFc noun, known as its antecedent. When the wheel squeaks, it is greased. Although most pronouns function as substitutes for nouns, some can function as adjectives modifying nouns ( This bird al- ways catches the worm). Because they have the form of a pronoun and the function of an adjective, such pronouns may be called pronoun/adjectives. Pronouns are classiFed as personal, possessive, intensive and re±exive, relative, interrogative, demonstrative, indeFnite, and reciprocal.
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course LEGAL PA101 taught by Professor Pamelabasmajian during the Winter '11 term at Kaplan University.

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011_RFW6e_Basics_(pages_529-564) - 529-564_63657_Part X.qxd...

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