RFW6e_Table_of_Contents

RFW6e_Table_of_Contents - xxiii PREFACE FOR INSTRUCTORS v...

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Unformatted text preview: xxiii PREFACE FOR INSTRUCTORS v HOW TO USE THIS BOOK AND ITS WEB SITE xv The Writing Process 1 1. Generate ideas and sketch a plan. 2 a. Assessing the writing situation 2 b. Exploring your subject 11 c. Formulating a tentative thesis 16 d. Sketching a plan 17 2. Rough out an initial draft. 20 a. Drafting an introduction that includes a thesis 21 b. Drafting the body 25 c. Attempting a conclusion 26 3. Make global revisions; then revise sentences. 27 a. Making global revisions 27 b. Revising and editing sentences; proofreading 29 STUDENT ESSAY 31 4. Build effective paragraphs. 40 a. Focusing on a main point 40 b. Developing the main point 43 c. Choosing a suitable pattern of organization 44 d. Making paragraphs coherent 50 e. Adjusting paragraph length 56 Contents Document Design 59 5. Become familiar with the principles of document design. 60 a. Format options 60 b. Headings 63 c. Lists 65 d. Visuals 66 6. Use standard academic formatting. 70 a. Academic formats 70 b. MLA essay format 70 7. Use standard business formatting. 70 a. Business letters 73 SAMPLE BUSINESS LETTER 73 b. Rsums and cover letters 74 SAMPLE RSUM 75 c. Memos 77 SAMPLE BUSINESS MEMO 77 d. E-mail messages 78 Clarity 79 8. Prefer active verbs. 80 a. Active versus passive verbs 81 b. Active versus be verbs 82 9. Balance parallel ideas. 84 a. Parallel ideas in a series 84 b. Parallel ideas presented as pairs 85 c. Repetition of function words 87 10. Add needed words. 88 a. In compound structures 88 b. that 89 c. In comparisons 89 d. a, an, and the 91 xxiv Contents 11. Untangle mixed constructions. 92 a. Mixed grammar 92 b. Illogical connections 94 c. is when , is where , and reason . . . is because 95 12. Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers. 96 a. Limiting modifiers 96 b. Misplaced phrases and clauses 97 c. Awkwardly placed modifiers 98 d. Split infinitives 99 e. Dangling modifiers 100 13. Eliminate distracting shifts. 104 a. Point of view (person, number) 104 b. Verb tense 106 c. Verb mood, voice 107 d. Indirect to direct questions or quotations 108 14. Emphasize key ideas. 109 a. Coordination and subordination 110 b. Choppy sentences 112 c. Ineffective or excessive coordination 115 d. Subordination for emphasis 117 e. Excessive subordination 118 f. Other techniques 119 15. Provide some variety. 120 a. Sentence openings 121 b. Sentence structures 122 c. Inverted order 122 16. Tighten wordy sentences. 123 a. Redundancies 123 b. Unnecessary repetition 124 c. Empty or inflated phrases 124 d. Simplifying the structure 125 e. Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words 126 17. Choose appropriate language. 128 a. Jargon 128 Contents xxv b. Pretentious language, euphemisms, doublespeak 129 c. Obsolete and invented words 131 d. Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English 132 e. Levels of formality 133 f. Sexist language 134 g. Offensive language 138 18. Find the exact words. 138 a. Connotations 139 b. Specific, concrete nouns 139 c. Misused words 140 d. Standard idioms...
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RFW6e_Table_of_Contents - xxiii PREFACE FOR INSTRUCTORS v...

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