Public.Policy.483.Fiskppt

Public.Policy.483.Fiskppt - The Civilian Space Policy of...

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The Civilian Space Policy of the United States Public Policy 483 March 2011
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The Early History -- World War II German rocket scientists surrender to Allies in May 1945. The V2 Rocket
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Rocket development in the U.S. languished after World War II until the hydrogen bomb made ICBMs possible. In 1954, the U. S. Air Force declared the Atlas program their highest priority. In 1954, the Soviets began their ICBM program.
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In 1950, in the living room of James Van Allen, the International Geophysical Year was conceived and then executed in 1957-58. The U.S. Government was supportive of the launch of a satellite during the IGY, not for the science it would do, but because it would legitimize over-flights of satellites in general.
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The Soviets launch first with Sputnik. There is probably no single event in American history that has had more positive impact on American society than Sputnik. Sputnik is launched in October 1957. Pickering, Van Allen celebrate the launch of Explorer 1 in January 1958. Vanguard explodes in December 1957.
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The American response to Sputnik came quickly. •Shortly after the launch of Explorer 1, the American Congress passed the Space Act, the Bill authorizing NASA. •In 1958, the National Defense Education Act was passed, forever altering science education in the U.S. •American research universities came into prominence. •Students across the U.S. were encouraged to pursue careers in math, engineering and science.
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The transformation of American society continued with President Kennedy’s pledge in 1961 committing the U.S. to place a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth before the decade is out. Kennedy said: “A moon landing will demand sacrifice, discipline, and organization: the Nation can no longer afford work stoppages, inflated costs, wasteful interagency rivalries, or high turnover of key personnel.” “Every scientist, every engineer, contractor and civil servant must give his personal pledge that this nation will move forward, with the full speed of freedom, in the exciting adventure of space.”
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Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of our history in space is how a program that had its origins strictly in the military evolved into a highly visible, aggressive, and comprehensive civilian space program of human exploration, of science, and of the utilization of space for society. In the Cold War between two superpowers that were capable of destroying each other, real war was not possible, and so space became a proxy for war.
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Space as a proxy for war -- wonderful cover for developing all possible space capabilities. Americans: Mercury astronauts; Tiros 1; Early Bird 1; Mariner 2. Soviets: First cosmonauts; first pictures of the far side of the moon.
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Other nations soon joined the space age. The first
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course PUBPOL 481 taught by Professor Duderstadt during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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Public.Policy.483.Fiskppt - The Civilian Space Policy of...

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