2011 04 07 Gil Omenn - life sciences

2011 04 07 Gil Omenn - life sciences - GRAND CHALLENGES IN...

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GRAND CHALLENGES IN THE LIFE SCIENCES Gilbert S. Omenn, MD, PhD Professor of Medicine, Genetics, Public Health Director, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics AAAS President, 2005-2006 OSTP, OMB Associate Director, 1977-80,1980-81 UM Public Policy 481, 7 April 2011 1
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President-Elect Obama’s Introduction of his Science and Technology Adviser, Dec 2008 2
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3 Grand Challenges and Great Opportunities in Science, Technology, and Public Policy 1. By scientific or engineering field 2. 3. As part of a larger societal need Omenn GS: Science 2006; 314: 1696-1704. AAAS theme for 2005-2006
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4 Life Sciences: The Genomic Revolution
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5 Protein DNA
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6 It’s A New World New Biology---New Technology The Genome Genome Expression Microarrays Comparative Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics Path to predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory (P4) healthcare
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Aims for Biomarkers Earlier diagnosis—catch the disease when still curable or even preventable Prognosis—future course of the disease, lethal vs liveable Prediction of response to therapy: sensitive or resistant Recurrence or flare-up: return of treated disease Translational Biomedical Research 7
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Has the Human Genome Project Changed Medical Care and Public Health? New molecular diagnostics that differentiate responders from non-responders? A few: Her2/neu and Kras. Prognostic drugs that guide how aggressive therapy should be for subgroups? Mammaprint; OncotypeDX New targets for therapy? Many Approved therapies directed at those targets? Very few: Gleevec, Herceptin, Prolia. It is a prolonged and costly task to produce new drugs. 8
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Predispose to Common Diseases? Amazing genome-wide probe sets do find handfuls and then dozens of genomic variants to be associated with various specific common diseases. Technologies: microarray hybridization; next-gen sequencing. For type 2 diabetes or height, for example, there are dozens of gene variants associated, but collectively they account for only a small fraction of the risk. Must be other risk factors, and there are! What would you propose? 9
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2011 for the course PUBPOL 481 taught by Professor Duderstadt during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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2011 04 07 Gil Omenn - life sciences - GRAND CHALLENGES IN...

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