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2011 03 31 Future of Nuclear Energy

2011 03 31 Future of Nuclear Energy - Fukushima and the...

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Fukushima and the Future of Nuclear Energy Public Policy 481 March 31, 2011 Gary S. Was Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Materials Science and Engineering
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A bit of the history of nuclear energy www.anl.gov First electricity from nuclear energy December 20, 1951
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www.21stcenturysciencetech.com www.nukeworker.com On December 2, 1942, man achieved the first self sustaining chain reaction and thereby initiated the controlled release of nuclear energy. Chicago Pile No. 1 (CP-1) was constructed in a makeshift laboratory under the grandstand of Stagg Field Stadium at The University of Chicago. Chicago Pile The 19th layer of graphite covering layer 18 containing slugs of uranium oxide.
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www.greenpeace.org.uk www.mesotheliomasos.com Modern nuclear plants
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How does nuclear power work? www.btinternet.com Thermal neutron 0.025 eV (2200 m/s)
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Heat Steam produced Steam Turbine Generator How does a reactor work?
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Control rods Fuel Assemblies Withdraw control rods, reaction increases Insert control rods, reaction decreases Control rods control the reaction
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Boiling Water Reactor - BWR
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Steam Pressurized Water Reactor - PWR
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Nuclear Power Plant Generations
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60s and 70s - The Heydays of Nuclear Power Buoyed by the prospect of cheap energy, utilities rushed to build nuclear plants and suppliers struggled to keep up with the demand. "Our children will enjoy in their homes electrical energy too cheap to meter…” Lewis L. Strauss, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Speech to the National Association of Science Writers, New York City, September 16th, 1954 [New York Times, September 17, 1954]
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But it didn’t last - huge cost overruns in building new plants - delays in construction schedule - public unease over safety - rising concerns over waste disposal - Three Mile Island - 1979 - Chernobyl - 1986 - abandonment by society - 1986
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Construction duration increased for reactors started >1972 Early reactors for which we don’t have cost data Main sample for which we do have cost data Jonathan G. Koomey, Staff Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Consulting Professor, Stanford University
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Historical US Construction Cost Experience 75 (pre-TMI-2 plants operating in 1986; $2007) Construction Start No. of Units Estimated Overnight Actual Overnight % Over 1966-1967 11 $648/kW $1354/kW 209% 1968-1969 26 $784/kW $2308/kW 294% 1970-1971 12 $878/kW $3057/kW 348% 1972-1973 7 $1291/kW $4305/kW 334% 1974-1975 14 $1336/kW $5098/kW 381% 1976-1977 5 $1725/kW $4633/kW 269% Mark Gielecki and James Hewlett, Commercial Nuclear Power in the United States: Problems and Prospects, US Energy Information Administration, August 1994.
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Large increases in installed capital costs for plants completed >1982 Installed costs include 6%/yr real interest during construction Jonathan G. Koomey, Staff Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Consulting Professor, Stanford University
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Three Mile Island - 1979
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Chernobyl - 1986
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U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.
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